Mohammad The Last Prophet A Model For All Time || The Messenger of Allah In Madinah

Madinah receives the Messenger of Allah

The Messenger of Allah and his party continued their journey to Quba' which is on the outskirts of Madinah. It was Monday the 12 of Rabi' al-Awwal and this date marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

When the Ansar heard that the Messenger of Allah had left Makkah they waited for him even more eagerly than people who are fasting wait for the new moon of the 'Id. Every day after the Morning Prayer they went to the outskirts of Madinah to look for him. They stayed there until the heat of the summer sun forced them to seek shade. They would go back into their houses feeling very disap- pointed.

On the day that the Messenger of Allah arrived, the people had just gone back into their houses. The Jews had taken note of what was going on and the first person to see him was indeed a Jew. He shouted as loudly as he could to announce to the Ansar that the Messenger of Allah had arrived. Everyone went out to greet him. He and Abu Bakr, who was about the same age, were sheltering under a palm-tree. Only a few of them had seen the Messenger of Allah before so most of the people in the crowd were unable to distinguish between him and Abu Bakr. Realizing their confusion, Abu Bakr stood up to shade him with his cloak from the sun, thus making it clear who was the Messenger of Allah.

The Muslims were overjoyed at the arrival of the Messenger of Allah. It was the best thing that had ever happened to them. The women and children chanted, 'This is the Messenger of Allah who has come! This is the Messenger of Allah who has come!' In their delight, the girls of the Ansar recited:
The full moon shines down upon us from Thaniyat al-Wada'.
We must all give our thanksgiving
all the while praising Allah.
You whom Allah sends among us,
what you bring, we will obey. You've ennobled Madinah.
Welcome now! Guide us to His way!
Anas ibn Malik al-Ansari, a boy at that time, said, 'I saw the Messenger of Allah the day he entered Madinah. I have not seen a better or more radiant day than when he came to us in Madinah.'

The Messenger of Allah spent four days at Quba' where he established a mosque. On Friday morning, he set off again. At noon he stopped among the Banu Salim ibn 'Awf where he prayed the Jumu'ah. This was the first Jumu'ah in Madinah.

The house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari

In Madinah the Messenger of Allah was greeted by people, all asking him to stay with them. They grabbed the halter of his camel but he said, 'Let it go its own way. It is under orders.' That happened several times. Eventually the camel stopped at the home of Banu Malik ibn an-Najjar. By herself she kneeled at a place which today marks the door of the Prophet's mosque. At that time it was used for drying dates and belonged to two orphan boys of the Banu'n- Najjar who were the Prophet's maternal uncles.

The Messenger of Allah got off his camel. Abu Ayyub Khalid ibn Zayd quickly carried his luggage into his house and the Messenger of Allah stayed with him. Abu Ayyub showed him generous hospitality and great respect. The Messenger of Allah insisted on staying on the lower floor of the house although Abu Ayyub disliked occupying the top floor above him, thinking it an insult. The Prophet, however, reassured him, saying, 'Abu Ayyub, it is more convenient for me and those who call on me that I stay on the lower floor.'

The Messenger of Allah's Mosque

The Messenger of Allah called for the two orphans who owned the date store and asked them to name a price for it, so that a mosque could be built. They said, 'We give it to you, Messenger of Allah.' He refused to accept it as a gift, however, and insisted on paying them.

The Messenger of Allah helped in the building of the mosque, carrying bricks alongside the other Muslims.

As he worked he recited, 'O Allah, the true reward is the reward of the Next World, so show mercy to the Ansar and Muhajirun!'

The Muslims were happy, reciting poetry and praising Allah.

The Messenger of Allah stayed in the house of Abu Ayyub for seven months until his mosque and the rooms for his family were ready.

The Muhajirun joined the Messenger of Allah until none were left in Makkah except those in prison or awaiting trial. Every house of the Ansar became Muslim.


The Messenger of Allah established brotherhood between the Muhajirun and the Ansar, and they were put under an obligation to assist one another. The Ansar were so eager to form a brotherhood that they had to draw lots to allocate their shares. The Ansar gave the Muhajirun authority over their homes, their furniture, their land and their animals and preferred them over themselves in every way.

An Ansari would say to a Muhajir, 'Have whichever half of my property you want to take,' and the Muhajir I would say, 'May Allah bless you in your family and property! Show me the market.' From the Ansar there was great benevolence as they demonstrated their generosity to their Muslim brothers while the Muhajirun retained their self-respect.

The Prophet's covenant

The Messenger of Allah bound together the Muha- jirun and the Ansar when he made a covenant with the Jews. They were confirmed in their freedom to practise religion and in their title to their wealth. Conditions were made for them and accepted from them.

The Adhan

When the Messenger of Allah was secure in Madinah and Islam had been strengthened, the people would join him at prayer without a call. He disliked the way the Jews and Christians used horns and bells to announce their calls to prayer. Then Allah honoured the Muslims with the adhan. One of them saw the method in a dream. The Messenger of Allah confirmed it and prescribed it for the Muslims. He chose Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi to call the adhan. He was the mu'adhdhin of the Messenger of Allah and thus became the Imam of all the mu'adhdhins until the end of time.

The hypocrites

Islam spread throughout Madinah and some of the rabbis and Jewish scholars also became Muslims. They included a learned rabbi named 'Abdullah ibn Salam whose acceptance of Islam annoyed other Jews. At that time the Jews were feeling anxious. They envied Islam, but at the same time they were frightened of it. Hence a group of hypocrites emerged. Their leader was 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul, whose power was not questioned before the arrival of Islam, but now his people were flocking to the new faith. He and others like him who were greedy for power became open enemies of Islam while others became secret hypocrites.

The Qiblah

The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims prayed towards Jerusalem for sixteen months after he came to Madinah but he wanted to turn to the Ka'bah. Muslims, as Arabs, had grown up with both love and esteem for the Ka'bah. They did not consider any other house equal to it nor any qiblah equal to the qiblah of Ibrahim and Isma'il. They all would have preferred to turn towards the Ka'bah. They found that the qiblah towards Jerusalem was an irritation, but they declared, 'We hear and obey,' and 'We believe it. All is from our Lord.' They always obeyed the Messenger of Allah and submitted to the commands of Allah whether or not that was what they wanted.

First Allah tested their hearts for taqwa and their submission to the command of Allah. Then He turned His Messenger and the Muslims towards the Ka'bah. The Qur'an says:

'Thus We appointed you a midmost nation that you might be witnesses to the people, and that the Messenger might be a witness to you; and We did not appoint the direction you were facing, except that We might know who followed the Messenger from him who turned on his heels- it was a difficult thing except for those whom Allah has guided.' (2: 143)

The Muslims turned to the Ka'bah out of obedience to Allah and His Messenger and it became the qiblah of the Muslims for all time to come. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims turn their faces towards it when they pray.

The Quraysh are still hostile

When Islam was firmly established in Madinah, and the Quraysh knew that it was flourishing and spreading, they became hostile towards the Muslims. Allah com- manded the Muslims to be steadfast and patient, saying, 'Restrain your hands and establish the prayer.' (4: 77)

When the Muslims were strong and secure, they were given permission to fight but were not obliged to do so. Allah said, 'Leave is given against those whom war is made (to fight) because they were wronged. Allah is able to help them.' (22: 39)

The first expeditions

The Messenger of Allah began to send delegations to visit other tribes and districts. Most of the time there was no war, only skirmishes. Even this much activity worried the idolworshippers but their anxiety encouraged the Muslims to emerge triumphant.

The Messenger of Allah went on the raid of Abwa', the first he himself undertook. It was followed by other raids and expeditions.

The fast

In the second year of the hijrah, fasting was made obligatory. Allah revealed, 'O you who believe, the fast is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you - perhaps you will be godfearing.' (2: 183)

He says, 'The month of Ramadan in which the Qur'an was sent down to be a guidance to the people and as clear signs of the Guidance and the Discrimination. Let those of you who are present at the month fast it.' (2: 185)

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