Some of the philosophers held the belief that the objective of religion is simply to establish justice in the worldly affairs, and that the laws of the shari'ah and the sending of the prophets was to create just laws that people need to bring order and safety to their lives. This is indeed the case in terms of religions that disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger, such as those who follow the philo- sophical leaders, and others, such as the people of Nûh, Nimrod, Genghis Khan, etc.
Every community needs duties and laws to which its members adhere, to bring order and safety to their lives. Sometimes these laws are used to take over other groups and conquer them, as the oppressive kings used to do, like Genghis Khan.
If the intention of religion and law was only to bring benefit and defend against harm in the worldly life, then those people have no claim to any reward in the Hereafter. Additionally, if they are using that to overcome and oppress others, like Fir'awn (Pharoah), Genghis Khan, and others, then for them will be the worst of punishments in the Hereafter.
As He, the Most High, said:
نَتۡلُوۡا عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ نَّبَاِ مُوۡسٰی وَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ بِالۡحَقِّ لِقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۳ اِنَّ فِرۡعَوۡنَ عَلَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ جَعَلَ اَهۡلَهَا شِیَعًا یَّسۡتَضۡعِفُ طَآئِفَۃً مِّنۡهُمۡ یُذَبِّحُ اَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَحۡیٖ نِسَآءَهُمۡ ؕ اِنَّهٗ کَانَ مِنَ الۡمُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۴
We recite to you some of the news of Müså and Fir'awn in truth, for a people who believe (those who believe in the Qur'an, and in the oneness of Allah). Verily, Fir'awn exalted himself in the land and made its people into sects, weakening (oppress- ing) a group (i.e., the Children of Israel) among them, killing their sons and letting their females live. Verily, he was of the mufsidun (i.e., those who commit great sins and crimes, oppressors, tyrants, etc.). [Surah al-Qasas 28:3-4)
Indeed, Allah told the story of Fir'awn in a number of places in the Qur'an, mentioning that he and his people belonged to the religion of the kings, as Allah, the Most High, said in the story of Yusuf:
مَا کَانَ لِیَاۡخُذَ اَخَاهُ فِیۡ دِیۡنِ الۡمَلِکِ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّشَآءَ اللّٰهُ
He could not have taken his brother within the religion of the king unless Allah willed. (Surah Yusuf 12:76]
This king was the Fir'awn during the time of Yusuf, and he was before the Fir'awn of Musă, because Fir'awn is a collective noun for anyone who ruled Egypt, similar to the designation Caesar, Khosrow, Negus, etc.
Those Sabian philosophers and innovators, and those who follow their ways and teachings from among the Muslims, Jews, and Christians, consider the revelations, laws, and religions to be of this type-i.e., laws for the public good in this life. Because of this, they do not command with tawhid, which is the worship of Allah alone, nor with striving for the Hereafter, nor do they forbid shirk; instead, they command with justice, honesty, fulfillment of covenants, and so forth.
This is the reason their laws establish types of trickery, magic, and talismans, as is permitted in their books. They say that some talis- mans are beneficial and should be permitted, as the Qarmatians and the Batiniyyah advise, like the actions of Fir'awn's magicians- and their effects are still present today, as can be seen from the mushrikun in Turkey and India.
The Sabian philosophers consider these things and the revelation sent with the prophets to be the same, so they see no difference between Müsă and the magicians who challenged him. They are as He, the Most High, said:
لَقَدۡ عَلِمُوۡا لَمَنِ اشۡتَرٰىهُ مَا لَهٗ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ مِنۡ خَلَاقٍ
And indeed, they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:102)
They accept that magic will be of no benefit in the Hereafter, but hope to benefit from it in the dunyà, like Allah, the Most High, said:
وَ یَتَعَلَّمُوۡنَ مَا یَضُرُّهُمۡ وَ لَا یَنۡفَعُهُمۡ
And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:102)
Since the harm of it is greater than its benefit. Allah, the Most High, said:
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّهُمۡ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ اتَّقَوۡا لَمَثُوۡبَۃٌ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰهِ خَیۡرٌ ؕ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳
And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew! [Surah al-Baqarah 2:103]
That which is forbidden of this type is due to its harm being greater than its benefit, but as for things that benefit mankind, then Allāh has never forbidden these things.
This is why the Prophet said when presented with ruqya:
مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَنْفَعَ أَخَاهُ فَلْيَفْعَلْ.
Whoever is able to benefit his brother should do so.23
And he also said:
لا بَأْسَ بِالرُّقَى مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ شِرْكٌ .
There is no harm in ruqya as long as it does not contain shirk,24
Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Qatadah that he said:
قُلْتُ لِسَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ رَجُلٌ بِهِ طِب أَوْ يُؤَخَذُ عَنِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَيُحَلَّ عَنْهُ أو يُنشرُ. قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ، إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُونَ بِهِ الإِصْلاحَ، فَأَمَّا مَا يَنْفَعُ فَلَمْ ينه عَنْهُ.
I said to Sa'id bin al-Musayyab, "If a man has medicine or a ruqya from his wife, should that be prevented or made available to the people?" He said, "There is no harm as long as it is for public good. That which is a benefit is never prohibited."25
23. Reported by Muslim (4/1726).
24. Reported by Muslim (4/1727).
25. Reported by al-Bukhari (7/137)
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