یٰۤاَیُّهَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الۡیَهُوۡدَ وَ النَّصٰرٰۤی اَوۡلِیَآءَ ۘؔ بَعۡضُهُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءُ بَعۡضٍ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّهُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ فَاِنَّهٗ مِنۡهُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَهۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۱ فَتَرَی الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِهِمۡ مَّرَضٌ یُّسَارِعُوۡنَ فِیۡهِمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ نَخۡشٰۤی اَنۡ تُصِیۡبَنَا دَآئِرَۃٌ ؕ فَعَسَی اللّٰهُ اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَ بِالۡفَتۡحِ اَوۡ اَمۡرٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِهٖ فَیُصۡبِحُوۡا عَلٰی مَاۤ اَسَرُّوۡا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِهِمۡ نٰدِمِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۲ وَ یَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَهٰۤؤُلَآءِ الَّذِیۡنَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰهِ جَهۡدَ اَیۡمَانِهِمۡ ۙ اِنَّهُمۡ لَمَعَکُمۡ ؕ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُهُمۡ فَاَصۡبَحُوۡا خٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۳ یٰۤاَیُّهَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مَنۡ یَّرۡتَدَّ مِنۡکُمۡ عَنۡ دِیۡنِهٖ فَسَوۡفَ یَاۡتِی اللّٰهُ بِقَوۡمٍ یُّحِبُّهُمۡ وَ یُحِبُّوۡنَهٗۤ ۙ اَذِلَّۃٍ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اَعِزَّۃٍ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ۫ یُجَاهِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَ لَا یَخَافُوۡنَ لَوۡمَۃَ لَآئِمٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ فَضۡلُ اللّٰهِ یُؤۡتِیۡهِ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۴ اِنَّمَا وَلِیُّکُمُ اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُوۡلُهٗ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا الَّذِیۡنَ یُقِیۡمُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ یُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ هُمۡ رٰکِعُوۡنَ ﴿۵۵ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّ اللّٰهَ وَ رَسُوۡلَهٗ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا فَاِنَّ حِزۡبَ اللّٰهِ هُمُ الۡغٰلِبُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶
And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy); they hurry to their friendship, saying, "We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us." Perhaps Allah may bring a victory or a decision according to His will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves. And those who believe will say, "Are these the men (hypocrites) who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that they were with you (Muslims)?" All that they did has been in vain (because of their hypocrisy), and they have become the losers. O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower. Verily, your wali (protector or helper) is Allah, His Messenger, and the believers-those who perform as-salah and give zakāh, and they bow down (submit themselves with obedience to Allah in prayer). And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as protec- tors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious. [Surah al-Ma'idah 5:51-56]
The basis of allegiance is muhabbah (love) and the basis of enmity is hatred, because mutual love requires closeness and agreement, while hatred requires distance and differing. It is said that al-mu- walli (ally) comes from the word al-walyu, which means closeness. (1)
Al-'aduww (enemy) comes from al-'udawa', which means distance. (2) If something draws near to something else, it becomes connected with it, and if something distances itself, it becomes separated.
Allah's allies are the opposite of His enemies: He brings them close to Himself, He is an ally to them and they are allies to Him, He loves them, He is merciful upon them, and His blessings are upon them. He is distant from His enemies and they are distanced from Him; He curses them, they are far from Him and His mercy, He angers them and He hates them, and this is the state of the allies and the enemies. Hence, the blessings are the opposite of the curse, mercy and pleasure are the opposite of anger, and anger and punish- ment are the opposite of enjoyment.
Allah, the Most High, said about those who are patient:
اُولٰٓئِکَ عَلَیۡهِمۡ صَلَوٰتٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّهِمۡ وَ رَحۡمَۃٌ ۟ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ هُمُ الۡمُهۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۷
They are those on whom are the salawat (i.e., bless- ings, etc.) (i.e., who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:157]
And He, the Most High, said about the munafiqin (hypocrites):
عَلَیۡهِمۡ دَآئِرَۃُ السَّوۡءِ ۚ وَ غَضِبَ اللّٰهُ عَلَیۡهِمۡ وَ لَعَنَهُمۡ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَهَنَّمَ ؕ وَ سَآءَتۡ مَصِیۡرًا ﴿۶
For them is a disgraceful torment, and the anger of Allah is upon them, and He has cursed them and prepared Hell for them, and worst indeed is that destination. [Surah al-Fath 48:6]
And He, the Most High, said about those who strive for His cause:
یُبَشِّرُهُمۡ رَبُّهُمۡ بِرَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡهُ وَ رِضۡوَانٍ وَّ جَنّٰتٍ لَّهُمۡ فِیۡهَا نَعِیۡمٌ مُّقِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۲۱
Their Lord gives them glad tidings of a mercy from Him, and that He is pleased (with them), and of Gardens (Paradise) for them wherein are everlasting delights. [Surah at-Tawbah 9:21]
And He, the Most High, said about the one who kills a believer intentionally:
فَجَزَآؤُهٗ جَهَنَّمُ خٰلِدًا فِیۡهَا وَ غَضِبَ اللّٰهُ عَلَیۡهِ وَ لَعَنَهٗ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهٗ عَذَابًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۹۳
His recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him. [Surah an-Nisa' 4:93]
The husband who accuses his wife of adultery says:
اَنَّ لَعۡنَتَ اللّٰهِ عَلَیۡهِ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۷
May the curse of Allah be upon him if he be of those who tell a lie (against her). [Surah an-Nur 24:7]
And this is in the case of slander.
And indeed, Allah, the Most High, said:
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَرۡمُوۡنَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتِ الۡغٰفِلٰتِ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ لُعِنُوۡا فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۪ وَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۲۳
Verily, those who accuse chaste women who never even think of anything touching their chastity and are good believers, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter, and for them will be a great torment. [Surah an-Nur 24:23]
And the woman whose husband accused her of adultery says:
اَنَّ غَضَبَ اللّٰهِ عَلَیۡهَاۤ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۹
May the wrath of Allah be upon her if he (her husband) speaks the truth. [Surah an-Nur 24:9]
Because if he is telling the truth, then she is an adulterer and she is deserving of Allah's anger, which is the opposite of mercy, and this is why He, the Most High, said:
اَلزَّانِیَۃُ وَ الزَّانِیۡ فَاجۡلِدُوۡا کُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنۡهُمَا مِائَۃَ جَلۡدَۃٍ ۪ وَّ لَا تَاۡخُذۡکُمۡ بِهِمَا رَاۡفَۃٌ فِیۡ دِیۡنِ اللّٰهِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰهِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ۚ وَ لۡیَشۡهَدۡ عَذَابَهُمَا طَآئِفَۃٌ مِّنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲
The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not pity withhold you in their case, in a punishment prescribed by Allah, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a party of the believers witness their punishment. [Surah an-Nür 24:2]
So He forbade that they be treated with mercy in Allah's religion.
The believer is protective of his honor and Allah is also protective of his honor, but Allah's protectiveness of His honor is greater, as is reported in detail in Sahih al-Bukhari from the Prophet (ﷺ) from more than one narration; he said:
لا أَحَدَ أَغْيَرُ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَلِذَلِكَ حَرَّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ.
There is none with more ghirah (protective of one's honor) than Allah, and due to this He prohibited the lewd sins (fornication), that which is apparent of them and that which is hidden. (3)
And in some authentic a ḥadith:
وَاللَّهِ مَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَغْيَرُ مِنَ اللَّهِ أَنْ يَزْنِيَ عَبْدُهُ أَوْ تَزْنِيَ أَمَتُهُ.
By Allah! There is none who has more ghirah than Allah, as He has forbidden His slaves, male or female, from committing adultery. (4)
إنَّ اللهَ يغار، وغَيْرَتُهُ أَنْ يَأْتِي العبد ما حرَّم عَلَيه.
Indeed, Allah is protective of His honor, and His ghirah is that the slave performs something from which He had forbidden him.(5)
Al-ghirah is the hatred and anger for the thing of which a person has ghirah. So even though zina comes from a source of desire and love from the two people, or one of the two people, it is opposed by the necessity of a person holding themselves above committing such lewd acts, and by piety and reserve from committing any forbidden act. Allah commanded that there should not be any pity for someone receiving their prescribed punishment, so He forbade us from pity that would cause us to lessen the punishment against them so that there would not be any love for that action. This is the reason He states that He has no love for that action. He, the Most High, said:
اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡفَحۡشَآءِ
Indeed, Allah does not command immorality. [Surah al-A'raf 7:28]
And that which Allah does not order on an obligatory level or a preferred level, He does not love. Lut said:
قَالَ اِنِّیۡ لِعَمَلِکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡقَالِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶۸
He said, "I am, indeed, of those who disapprove with severe anger and fury of your action (of sodomy)." [Surah ash-Shu'ara' 26:168]
Qila (the word used by the prophet Lut in the verse) means hatred of it and disassociation of oneself from it, and the prophets are the allies of Allah; they love what Allah loves and hate what He hates. It is also said that qila is the most extreme form of hate, so Allah hates that, and He hates everything that He has prohibited; likewise, He loves everything that He commands. In fact, al-ghirah is a prerequi- site for the hate, because if a person has ghirah for anything, he will hate that thing, but a person does not experience feelings of ghirah for everything that he hates. Therefore, ghirah is a stronger, more arousing emotion.
There is no doubt that a cheating married woman is deserving of this anger for two reasons: because of the forbidden nature of zina, and because by doing that she has also transgressed against her husband and corrupted his bloodline. This is why, if the husband accuses his wife of cheating without the necessary four witnesses (6), then he asks Allah to curse her (if he is right and she is lying), as that is his right. If he is telling the truth, he has been oppressed, and the harm that results from her zina is something that Allah's shari'ah should defend against. Just as the person slandered by accusations of zinā has the right to demand the punishment of qadf (7) to be exacted on the slanderer who has oppressed that person's honor, likewise the husband has the right to demand the punishment for fornication for the one who has oppressed and transgressed against him. As the Prophet (ﷺ) said about the man's right over his wife:
أن لا يوطئن فرشكم من تكرهون
That she does not permit anyone that you dislike on your bed. (8)
Because of this, the man can accuse his wife if he knows she is committing zina. In this case, qadf is permissible, or it is an obliga- tion if he needs to reject the paternity of a child from his wife. This is established by one of the following: either she admits to the zină, in which case the punishment is carried out against her and his right is fulfilled and she is cleansed from that action, and here punishment in the Hereafter is expiated; or she invites Allah's wrath and punishment in the Hereafter, which is a much greater punishment than what would be received in the dunya. Also, the husband is oppressed, and the person who is oppressed either takes back their right in the dunya or the Hereafter. Allah, the Most High, said:
لَا یُحِبُّ اللّٰهُ الۡجَهۡرَ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ اِلَّا مَنۡ ظُلِمَ ؕ۱۴۸
Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. [Surah an-Nisa' 4:148]
Besides the husband, no one else has the right to lie with the wife, and therefore no one else has the right to publicly accuse a woman or to do the lian (9), because unlike the husband, he does not have a need for that nor is he oppressed regarding her bed. However, fahishah (10) can also cause oppression for other than the husband, but that does not require al-li'an, such as causing shame and disgrace for the family; and this can occur with just the prerequisites that lead to fahishah.
If the fahishah is not evident by way of self-admittance or proofs, then the consequences that will arise from that will be sufficient to compensate for the truth, such as being alone with the opposite sex, looking at the opposite sex with desire, or one of the other reasons that lead to zina that Allah forbade, and this is the beauty of the shari'ah.
Additionally, the fahishah that occurs between the two fornicators often results in the oppression of others, because when two people fall into a corrupt love and desire that will drive them to collude with one another to achieve their goals, they help one another in ways that oppress the people around them. This causes enmity and oppression of others due to their participation in lewd acts and their cooperation with one another oppressing others. This is a common occurrence with those who engage the company of those women and young men who prostitute themselves; they honor them with gifts, support, and help them in a manner that results in the neglect of the rights of others and causes enmity to come between them and the people close to them. Also, a person's love for their boyfriend (or girlfriend) could lead one to take people's money illegally to give to him, and leads one to neglect people's rights and break off the ties of kinship because of that person, because it is not possible to combine between the two. It also leads to aiding one another with enmity.
In summary, love requires the lover to be in accordance with the one who is loved. If the love is corrupt, then Allah will not love it or be pleased with it. If the harm of the relationship does not affect others, then their punishment is Allah's right; but most of the time, in fact, it is inevitable that the harm will extend beyond themselves to other people, because both people involved have responsibili- ties to other people and are forbidden from having enmity towards them, so if the two of them love each other and collude with one another, they will be unable to fulfill their responsibilities and they will need to transgress against others.
And no one should pay attention to what some people say: "If a person does zină, then the sin is specific to that person alone and is not oppression of anyone else," because that is only in individual fahishah, like individual zina, which is not connected to the rights of others; as for the zina of a spouse, then there is agreement that this involves the oppression of others, as we have explained.
Corrupt muhabbah (love) and ishq (passion) can be a greater harm than committing zină once, because if a man commits zina once or twice, then he achieves his objective, and likewise a woman; then it can either be for a payment from one to the other or without payment, and it could involve the oppression of others.
But as for al-muhabbah and al-'ishq, then they usually cause enmity and hatred for others, because muhabbah makes one spend money and do things for the person who is loved, which leads to others being prevented from the same treatment and causes bad feelings towards that person. The loved one is taken care of and protected from harm, which means the rights of others are neglected and are treated with enmity. Don't you see that if a man loves someone other than his wife, or if a woman loves other than her husband, they will fall short in their duties to one another and transgress against one another? In fact, if a man loves a woman or a young man, he falls short in his responsibilities towards his family and friends and he oppresses them, just as others oppress them because of him.
This is besides Allah's right, which requires a severe punishment, even if the man is able to perform his obligations and leaves the oppression as much as possible. However, this is what you would expect from such an action and this is a cause for its occurrence, and it is one of the things that cause a man to become bewildered and wavering, and to drift between right and wrong. This is a great sickness, as Allah, the Most High, mentioned:
فَیَطۡمَعَ الَّذِیۡ فِیۡ قَلۡبِهٖ مَرَضٌ
Lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire. [Surah al-Ahzab 33:32]
In terms of the oppression that they cause themselves and their partners, then that is obvious, but it is an oppression from their own selves; they are at the same time the oppressors and the oppressed. But those whom they oppress, then they are oppressed against their will or satisfaction.
In addition, this invalid love leads to the kind of oppression of one another (i.e., the fornicators) that includes death, unjust torment, one partner preventing the other from connecting with the people, or preventing them from doing what they choose as a rectification, etc. Hence, zină contains all of these hardships and worse, and all that oppression from themselves originates from corrupt muhabbah.
He, the Glorified, commanded that mercy is not given to those who should be punished for zină because compassion and mercy is supposed to benefit the object of the mercy and repel harm from him. If one is merciful to someone due to the desire and love in their hearts, and refrains from punishing the fornicators, then that will bring about harm and repel benefit for them, because that is a disease in their hearts. The sick person who craves what harms them is not cured by giving them what they desire; rather, their cure is restraint, even if it is painful, and providing the sick person with something beneficial and replacing the harmful thing with what is prescribed and does no harm.
This is the way of the people of corrupt desires-if their hearts catch fire with desire, then mercy and compassion will only make it stronger, and neglecting their punishment only increases their affliction and torment, and the heat in their hearts is like that of the heat of someone with a fever, and when the fever becomes stronger, the person's sickness gets worse or changes to an even worse disease.
This is the state of the people of desires; instead, you defend against those desires with their opposite, by prohibiting their causes, and by facing it with the painful punishment that removes it from the heart; as is said:
Indeed, I witnessed the love in the heart and the pain;
If they combine, the love quickly goes away.
If muhabbah and desire achieve something that creates more pain than enjoyment, the soul refrains from it. Likewise, if its opposite attains something enjoyable and better, the soul becomes irritated. Hence, the enjoyment is abandoned for whatever outweighs it, whether it is enjoyment or pain, just as pain is likely if overcome by either pleasure or pain. If they are both equal, so neither overcomes the other, then the situation remains as it was with equal positives and negatives. The possibility of experiencing pain or missing out on pleasure even if it involves some bitterness-will repel what is expected to be more bitter or [cause one to] seek to obtain whatever is more likely to be sweet.
However, this is from the inescapable love and trials of Bani Ādam, and it is in opposition to the desires, so nobody's benefit could ever be established without that-neither benefits of the dunya nor of the Hereafter, as Ibrahim al-Harbi said: "The intellectuals of every nation agree that pleasure cannot be attained through pleasure; patience is required in every situation." Allah, the Most High, said:
وَ الۡعَصۡرِ ۙ﴿۱ اِنَّ الۡاِنۡسَانَ لَفِیۡ خُسۡرٍ ۙ﴿۲ اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ وَ تَوَاصَوۡا بِالۡحَقِّ ۬ۙ وَ تَوَاصَوۡا بِالصَّبۡرِ ﴿۳
By al-'asr (the time). Verily! Man is in loss, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth. [Surah al-'Aşr 103:1-3]
So there must be mutual reminders to be both upon the truth and to remain patient, because the people of corruption and falsehood are patient upon their falsehood, but the believers recommend one another to both the truth and patience. The people of corruption and falsehood only recommend one another to be patient upon their falsehood, as Allah mentioned that they say:
وَ انۡطَلَقَ الۡمَلَاُ مِنۡهُمۡ اَنِ امۡشُوۡا وَ اصۡبِرُوۡا عَلٰۤی اٰلِهَتِکُمۡ ۚۖ اِنَّ هٰذَا لَشَیۡءٌ یُّرَادُ ۖ﴿ۚ۶
"Go on, and remain constant to your alihah (gods)! Verily, this is a thing designed (against you)!" [Surah Sad 38:6]
Recommending and persevering upon the truth without patience is like those who say, "We believe in Allah," but if any of them are afflicted with a difficulty for Allah's sake, they see their test as Allah's punishment; and [it is like] those who worship Allah on a knife's edge, so if they are blessed with some good they are at peace with Him, but if they are afflicted with a tribulation, the loss of this life and the Hereafter fall upon his face.
Recommending patience without the truth is like those who said, "Go on, and remain constant to your alihah (gods)! Verily, this is a thing designed (against you)!" [Surah Ṣad 38:6], and both situations lead to loss, and the only thing that can save from this loss is for the believers to believe, act righteously, and recommend one another to truth and patience. This exists within every person who removed themselves from the people of corrupt desires, the people of doubts, the people of sin, and the people of innovation.
What we previously mentioned regarding the corrupt love between people that causes them to oppress themselves and others relates to every form of love that is hated by Allah, such as the love of idols and partners associated with Him. Allah, the Most High, said:
وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَنۡدَادًا یُّحِبُّوۡنَهُمۡ کَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلّٰهِ
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe love Allah more (than anything else). [Surah al-Baqarah 2:165]
And He, the Most High, said:
وَ اُشۡرِبُوۡا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِهِمُ الۡعِجۡلَ بِکُفۡرِهِمۡ
And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf because of their disbelief. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:93]
This also applies to the love the people of desires possess for lewd acts, the love of the wrongdoers, and those who speak about Allah concerning what they do not know, because love creates cooperation between the couple in love and their agreement with one another. This necessitates that they hate and oppose anyone who dislikes their relationship and rebukes them. It is well known that every believer hates what Allah hates and loves what Allah loves, and therefore they will hate any form of love that Allah hates.
1. Lisän al-'Arab (an Arabic dictionary) says: "Al-walyu: closeness and nearness; and it is said, 'We separated after walyu (being close)."
2. Lisan al-'Arab says: "Al-udawa' means a distant home, and al-'add' means distance, for example: "Their 'udawa' became long,' i.e., "They became distant and separated."
3. Reported by al-Bukhari (6/57), at-Tirmidhi (5/200-201), and others. The wording here is from at-Tirmidhi.
4. Reported by al-Bukhari (7/35) on the authority of 'A'ishah. This hadith is part of a much longer hadith that starts with: "In the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, the sun eclipsed, so he led the people in prayer... Then he delivered the khutbah (sermon), and after praising and glorifying Allah, he said, "The sun and the moon are two of Allah's signs...then he said, 'O follower of Muhammad, by Allah! There is none who has more ghirah than Allah..."
5. Reported by al-Bukhari (7/35), Muslim (4/2114), and others.
6. In the shari'ah, it is not permissible to accuse someone of zina unless one has four witnesses to attest to actually seeing the act of intercourse. If a person does this without the necessary four witnesses, then he is given lashes and his testimony is not accepted. Allah said in Surah an-Nur, verse 4: "And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with 80 lashes, and reject their testimony forever; they indeed are the fasiqun (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allah)."
However, Allah made an exception for the husband or wife who accuses his or her spouse. In this case, if he or she is unable to provide four witnesses to the act, then they swear by Allah that they are telling the truth four times and the fifth time they ask Allah to curse them if they are lying. Then the accused spouse will swear by Allah four times that the accusing spouse is lying and the fifth time he or she invokes Allah's wrath to be upon themselves if their spouse is telling the truth about them. This is all prescribed in the Qur'an (Surah an-Nür 24:4-9).
7. To accuse someone of zind without four witnesses to the zina. The one who does this receives 80 lashes and his testimony is not accepted.
8. Reported by at-Tirmidhi (2/415), Ibn Majah (1/594), and others. At-Tirmidhi said, "This hadith is hasan sahih (good authentic)."
9. The aforementioned process wherein the husband and wife invite Allah's curse and anger if they are lying.
10. Lewd acts, fornication, adultery, etc.
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