The Difference Between Islamic 'Aqeedah and Philosophy and 'Ilm al-Kalaam
Philosophy deals with the exact same topics that religion deals with, for the philosophers claim that their research is aimed at discovering the origins and purpose of the universe, and discovering the ways of attaining human happiness in the short term and the long term. These form the two components of the discipline of philosophy, the theoretical and the practical, which are also the topics addressed by religion.1 Yet, despite all this, I say that there is immense difference between religion and philosophy. They differ with regard to their origins and sources, their methodology and way, the extent of their prevalence and influence, in their styles and methods of deriving evidence, and in the effects that each of them have. We will endeavour to explain all of this so as to remove any confusion of religion with philosophy.
Origins and sources
Philosophy, in all its guises, is a "human endeavour" which is subject to all the restrictions, limitations and slow progress towards an unknown objective that are inherent in human nature. It is subject to the human potential for change, and the human alternation between guidance and misguidance, between approaching perfection and straying far from that goal.
Hence the prominent philosophers were not able to rid themselves of the influence of their environment, so their concepts and beliefs reflected their surroundings. 2
In all his works, Plato, for example, repeats the myths which were prevalent at his time, and he even produces myths of his own as part of his ideas and beliefs. Indeed, many of his beliefs and ideas are myths in themselves.
Listen to what Al-'Aqqaad says about Plato: "The idolatrous environment in which Plato lived overwhelmed his thoughts, because of the customs of his society and the effect of his surroundings. So he included in his beliefs the idea of gods and demi-gods which have no place in the monotheistic religions."3
Then Al-'Aqqaad discusses Plato's point of view concerning the universe, using Plato's theory of the universe to prove the point that is quoted above: "According to Plato, the universe consists of two opposing levels, the level of absolute reason, and the level of the primordial matter. All power comes from absolute reason, and all incapability comes from the primordial matter. In between, there are beings on various levels; higher status is determined by the extent to which they are influenced by reason, and lower levels by how much they take from the primordial matter. Some of these intermediate beings are gods, some are demi-gods, and some are human beings."4
The reason why Plato accepted the idea of these intermediate gods is, as Al-'Aqqaad says, because "he wanted to explain thereby the reason why evil, imperfection and pain exist in this world. For absolute reason is perfect and is not limited by time or place, and produces nothing but good and virtue. So these intermediate gods are taking care of creation because they exist between the all-powerful God and the incapable primordial matter. Hence imperfection, evil and pain stem from these intermediaries between the two extremes."5
It is also well-known that Plato believed in the idea of transmigration of souls.
This is philosophy as described from its own sources.
The Islamic 'aqeedah, on the other hand, is a Revelation (Wahy) from Allah (3), and has all the Divine qualities of unalterable truth whose words cannot be changed, and decisive truth which falsehood cannot approach from before it or behind it (cf. Qur'an 41: 42). Furthermore, it is a great blessing which comes to people without any effort on their part, bestowing its light upon them in a very short period, like the blinking of an eye.6
Methodology and way 7
The philosophical methodology differs from its Islamic counterpart from the beginning to the end. Many philosophers begin by studying the human psyche, making this their basis and starting point. So when they speak of their understanding of knowledge, they say that sometimes it is empirical (based on experience), sometimes it is rational (based on reason), and sometimes it is both.
They made the empirical, natural and other sciences the basis without which knowledge cannot be acquired, then they claimed that in this manner they could understand matters which were close to them, in the realms of nature, mathematics and ethics. They made these three the foundations on which all sciences are built. Thus they are also represented in the bases of 'ilm al-kalaam (scholasticism), where it is said that one is half of two, the body cannot be in two places at once, and that two opposites, such as black and white, cannot be joined.
Many of these people do not consider ethical matters, such as justice and chastity, as being part of the basic principles; rather they see them as minor issues for which support and evidence are required.
Many philosophical writers start with logic, then empirical science and mathematics, then they move on to knowledge of the Divine. So you find that writers on 'ilm al-kalaam follow the same principles when examining, studying and deriving evidence, which is like logic, then they move on to discuss, how the universe is created, and strive to prove the existence of the Creator. Some of them divide. knowledge into that which exists and that which does not, and sub- categories thereof, as the philosopher when he starts to seek knowledge of the Divine.
Most philosophers speak in depth about matters of nature or instinct, they then discuss the stars and planets, then those among them who study the matter of divinity start to speak about the "One-Who-must- exist" (i.e., Allah), and about reasons and human nature. Some of them try to prove the existence of the "One - Who - must - exist" on the basis that this universe has to have the "One - Who - must - exist".
The aim of those scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam (scholasticism) who affirm Tawheed in their books is to prove the Oneness of the Creator, and that He has no partner or associate. They think that this is what is meant by the phrase Laa ilaaha illa-Allah (there is no god except Allah).
This methodology of philosophy and 'ilm al-kalaam may keep the researcher busy for a lifetime, without ever reaching any conclusions. Whatever he learns from it is still accompanied by doubts which forestall any kind of certainty. Thus the researcher is beset by confusion.
The Qur'anic methodology, on the other hand, makes the call to worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, the starting point of its message and the message of all the Messengers:
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِيَ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ(And We did not send any Messenger before you [O' Muhammad] but We revealed to him [saying]: Laa ilaaha illa Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)], so worship Me [Alone and none else]. (Qur'an 21: 25)
Every Messenger first of all asked his people to worship Allah (SWT), Alone:
... يَقَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَه غَيْره .....O' my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilaah [God] but Him...(Qur'an 23: 23)
He asked them to worship Him (Allah) with their hearts, with their tongues and with their physical faculties; the worship of Allah implies that one knows Him and remembers Him.
According to this methodology, the foundation of knowledge is knowledge of Allah (SWT), not empirical knowledge. For Allah is the First, Who created all that exists, and the Last, to Whom all of creation will return. He is the all-encompassing principle; knowledge of Him is the basis of all knowledge, remembrance of Him is the basis of all remembrance, and striving for His sake is the basis of all effort.
From the knowledge of Allah stem all other kinds of knowledge. From the worship of Him and seeking Him alone stem all kinds of good objectives. By worshipping Him and seeking His help, the heart is protected, for it has taken refuge in the trustworthy support and is clinging to guidance and certain proof. So it is always increasing either in knowledge and eemaan, or in safety from ignorance and disbelief. For learning by the help of Allah is the greatest means of learning about Allah and about life and other things, and about the human psyche.
Ibn Abi Ḥaatim said: "We learned about everything by the help of Allah." Ibn 'Abbaas was asked, "How did you come to know about your Lord?" He said, "Whoever tries to understand his religion by analogy will remain confused throughout his life, wandering and deviating from the right way. We learned about Allah (SWT), from the way He described Himself and from the attributes of which He told us."
When the Messenger (ﷺ) sent Mu'aadh to Yemen to call the people to Allah, he told him that he would come to some of the People of the Book. He (the Prophet) advised him that the first thing to which he should call them should be the worship of Allah Alone. If they acknowledged that, then he was to call them to do the obligatory duties. He did not tell him to call them first to doubt or to examine things anew, as is the way of some philosophers and scholastics.
Therefore Bukhari started his book with the foundation on which knowledge and eemaan are built, that is, the Revelation. So he started with the chapter entitled "The beginning of the Revelation," in which he described how knowledge and eemaan were revealed to the Prophet (ﷺ). Then he followed this with the "Book of Faith (eemaan)," which implies acceptance of what the Prophet brought. This is followed by the chapter "Book of Knowledge" wherein he explains what the Prophet (ﷺ) brought. So he organized his book in a manner which is indicative of his knowledge and wisdom, may Allah have mercy on him.
When Allah (SWT) resurrects mankind, He will not ask them about the empirical sciences, or logic and natural sciences; rather He will ask them whether or not they responded to His Messengers.
.... كُلَّمَا أُلْقِيَ فِيهَا فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُها أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ قَالُوا بَلَى قَدْ جاءَ نا نذير فَكَذَّبْنَا وَقُلْنَا مَا نَزَّلَ اللهُ مِن شَيْءٍ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَلٍ كَبِير وَقَالُوا لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِي أَصْعَبِ السَّعِيرِ فَاعْتَرَفُوابِذَنْبِهِمْ فَسُحْفًا لِأَصْحَابِ السَّعِيرِ )...Every time a group is cast therein [into Hell], its keeper will ask: 'Did no warner come to you?' They will say: 'Yes, indeed a warner did come to us, but we belied him and said: 'Allah never sent down anything [of Revelation]; you are only in great error." And they will say: 'Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!' Then they will confess their sin. So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire!) (Qur'an 67: 8-11)
Evidence can only be established against mankind by sending Messengers:
... وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولً...And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger [to give warning]. (Qur'an 17: 15)
Just as the call to worship Allah (SWT) is the starting point in the Qur'anic methodology, and knowledge of Allah is the basis from which stem all other kinds of knowledge, the final point, too, is the worship of Allah, which includes knowing Him and affirming His Oneness (Tawheed). Affirming the oneness of the Creator, which is the ultimate aim of the Islamic philosophers, is only a part of the Qur'anic methodology; despite its importance, it is not sufficient merely to state that. Hence the mushrikeen the polytheists - whom the Messenger (ﷺ) fought did not benefit from their affirmation of that.
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّه ...And if you [O' Muhammad] ask them: 'Who has created the heavens and the earth,' they will certainly say: 'Allah'... (Qur'an 31: 25)قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ )سَيَقُولُونَSay: 'Who is [the] Lord of the seven heavens, and [the] Lord of the Great Throne?' They will say: 'Allah'... (Qur'an 23: 86-87)
But the philosophers who examined the human mind and psyche have gotten nowhere in this vast and endless field. You find sufficient evidence of that in the fact that the immense scientific progress of the modern age has not revealed to us the true nature of the human psyche. "Mankind has made huge efforts to discover his psyche, but despite the fact that we possess a huge treasure of observations made by philosophers, scientists, poets and spiritual leaders of all times, we can only understand a specific aspect of ourselves, but not man as a whole... We know that man is composed of different parts, but even these parts are known to us only through our limited means. Each one of us is formed from his physical parts, in the midst of which is an unknown reality.
The fact remains that our ignorance is almost total, and the deepest questions about mankind remain unanswered, because unlimited areas in our inner selves are still unknown."8
If this is the knowledge gained through the twentieth century research, how can the human psyche be the basis from which other kinds of knowledge stem? With regard to the knowledge of whatever lies beyond the natural world, philosophy has clearly gone far astray.
'Aqeedah-creed/belief, is distinguished by its great power over the souls of its followers. Philosophy has no hope of reaching such a level of influence, or else it would reach an inappropriate high position and contradict itself. The reason for that is that philosophy looks for knowledge and truth within the framework of human ability. The philosophers deal with whatever they have discovered about the aspects of that truth. The philosopher is the one who knows the shortcomings of the human mind, and anything that is human, lack perfection. Hence academic tolerance and modesty are among the most prominent features. Socrates, with his great standing among philosophers, said, "The thing that I still know so well is that I do not know anything."
But the follower of 'aqeedah-creed/belief sees that the 'aqeedah to which he holds fast has its origins with the One Who knows the secrets of creation and Who encompasses all things with His knowledge. So 'aqeedah gives a true and clear image of reality.
'Aqeedah demands commitment, humility and submission, and does not accept any argument or contradiction when it comes to its rulings. Indeed, it does not allow any room for discussion or re-examination of itself. If a person does that with regard to some issue, then as far as that issue is concerned, he becomes like a philosopher and not a religious person, until he reaches a stage of conviction to which he adheres. At that point no compromise can be accepted and he cannot free himself from the obligations that are required. Then it becomes a belief to which he demonstrates an extraordinary devotion to the extent that he does not care if he sacrifices himself for its sake. We hardly ever see any other kind of idea having such a hold over its followers, be it academic, political or otherwise.
Shaykh Muhammad 'Abdullah Darraaz explained the mystery behind this phenomenon when he said: "The mystery behind this phenomenon the distinctive power wielded by 'aqeedah, which distinguishes it from philosophy is represented by the difference between the essence of knowledge and the essence of eemaan, and the difference between conviction that is based on reason and conviction that is based on faith. A person may understand the meaning of hunger and thirst without feeling their pain, and he may understand the meaning of love and desire without actually feeling them. He may understand the effect of a brilliant piece of art, the techniques involved and the fine details of the piece, without truly appreciating it or liking it.
These different types of knowledge are learned through the senses, or by thought, or by instinct. One notices them as something that is detached from the soul or something that passes by (it) and touches it in a superficial way leaving some impression, but without sinking deeply into it or affecting its behaviour. Every person whose ideas and principles are formed in this manner has no faith at all.
Eemaan-creed/belief is knowledge which reverberates deep in the conscience, so that the heart does not feel any hesitation concerning it, rather filled with the comfort of certainty. Eemaan has to do with feelings and conscience which take an idea from the level of reason into the depths of the heart, as if the idea is food and drink which nourish the soul. Thus the idea becomes one of the elements in its life, and eemaan changes the idea into a vital driving force which lets nothing stand in its way.
This is the difference between religion and philosophy. The aim of philosophy is knowledge, and the aim of religion is eemaan. The goal of philosophy is dry knowledge which takes a lifeless form, whilst the goal of religion is an energetic soul and vital power.
Darraaz notes that philosophy focuses on just one aspect of the soul, whilst religion takes control of the soul in its entirety. Philosophy observes, analyzes and draws conclusions; it seeks to dissect reality and kill its spirit, then it tries to put the pieces back together in an artificial manner so that it may be understood by reason. Philosophy, therefore, leaves the impression that the soul is a dry, empty shell. Religion, on the other hand, is an cantillation that gives a full picture of reality, penetrating deep beneath the surface of the heart, so that the soul gives its all to it and surrenders its reins to it.
Here Darraaz illustrates the subtle difference between philosophy and religion. He notes that the aim of philosophy is theoretical even in its practical aspect, whereas the aim of religion is practical even in its theoretical aspect. The ultimate aim of philosophy is to show us what is true and good, and where it is to be found; after that, it is not concerned with our attitude towards the truth and good that it has defined. Religion, on the other hand, tells us what is true, not only so that we may know it, but so that we may believe in it, love it and venerate it, and it tells us what is obligatory so that we may do it and perfect our souls by doing so.
In order to make the matter even clearer, he compares the practical effects of religion and philosophy. Darraaz explains that religion draws man's attention to His Creator so that He may know Him and turn to Him, loving Him and glorifying Him, whereas the aim of philosophy is merely to point out the knowledge which makes the connection between cause and effect.
He explains that religious belief ('aqeedah) has an influence on society, motivating the believer to achieve its aims and propagate its message, whereas philosophy is not concerned with spreading its message; on the contrary philosophers may even keep it from others and take philosophy as a monopoly which they keep to themselves.
Style of Aqeefah 9
Islamic 'aqeedah has a distinct, dynamic and rhythmic style, a direct approach that touches upon universal realities that cannot be put into words, though can be evoked by words and phrases. It is distinguished by the fact that it addresses all aspects of the human condition, motivating all its potentials and faculties; it does not address itself solely to the rational aspect of humanity.
Philosophy, on the other hand, takes a different approach, whereby it seeks to contain universal reality in phrases, although the kind of reality which it seeks to deal with cannot be moulded into mere words. Moreover, the essential aspects of these realities are, by their very nature, far beyond the arena in which the human intellect usually operates. The inevitable result is that philosophy turns out to be unduly complex, confused and dry. Therefore, Islamic 'aqeedah should not be discussed in the philosophical manner, because this will kill it and extinguish its light, and confine it to just one aspect of the human condition.
From this point we may note the complexity, dryness, shortcomings and deviation that exist in all attempts to discuss 'aqeedah in this manner which is alien to its nature. The Qur'anic way of explaining the Islamic 'aqeedah is characterized by simplicity and clarity which make it possible for all people to grasp, regardless of the level of their understanding. So each person absorbs it according to his own ability to understand and believe. This is in contrast to the complex style of philosophy which is filled with jargon which is understood by very few.
The way in which the Qur'an gives evidence is different from the manner in which philosophy and 'ilm al-kalaam give evidence. We may make this distinction clearer by mentioning the following points:
a) The Qur'an points to the evidence of visible signs in the universe which indicate the Oneness of the Creator. Philosophy and 'ilm al- kalaam do likewise, but the Qur'anic approach differs from the philosophical approach. The Qur'an refers to the same signs which inevitably lead to knowledge of their Creator, just as knowing the rays of the sun inevitably leads one to know that the sun exists, with no need for creating analogies as the philosophers do in order to prove that the universe is a created entity.
Knowing that this universe was created by and is subject to Allah is something instinctive. There is no need to produce evidence and to establish proof. Man knows instinctively that this universe which he sees is in need of its Creator, and that it is subject to and controlled by Him. This does not need the analogies which the philosophers produce to prove that the universe is a created entity and that there is a Creator. Allah (SWT), says:
و أولم ير الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ الله وَجَعَلْنَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ روَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ ) وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا تَحْفُوظًا وَهُمْ عَنْ عَلَيْهَا مُعْرِضُونَ وَهُوَالَّذِي خَلَقَ الَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلَّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَHave not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then we parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided. And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs [i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds]. And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating.) (Qur'an 21: 30-33)
b) The rational evidence10 which the Qur'an gives is befitting to the majesty and perfection of Allah (). The Qur'an does not use analogies which apply to absolutely everything when it speaks of Allah (SWT), for this would imply that the Creator and His creation are equal. Rather, it uses the analogy of "more so" when it speaks of Allah, which means that if there is any attribute of perfection which may be applied to any mortal creation, it is more befitting for the Creator to be described in this manner, because He is the One Who has bestowed that perfection upon His creation. If He did not have that attribute of perfection, then that would imply that there was something in His creation that was more perfect than He- which is impossible.
Allah (SWT), says:
... وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَى ......And for Allah is the highest description...(Qur'an 16: 60)
Every shortcoming which the created being does not have, then it is more befitting for the Creator to be free of it.
c) We may also note that the rational evidence given by the Qur'an points to the truth in the most eloquent and concise manner, whilst much of the rational evidence presented by the philosophers and scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam is not strong. If the evidence used to prove the truth is weak, then this leads to doubt, confusion and frustration concerning the truth, and may even lead to a rejection of the truth, because it becomes easy for opponents to expose the shortcomings of the evidence. If they refute the evidence, then they refute the truth, although the truth is strong in and of itself, and the weakness exists in the evidence (and not in the truth itself). For this reason we see that the scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam are the people who shift most frequently from one opinion to another; they may affirm one opinion on one occasion, and its opposite on another, and they may even denounce as kaafir people who hold an opinion which they themselves have stated on another occasion. This is in contrast to the evidence of the Qur'an and Sunnah, whose followers adhere to what they say and are not confused about it.11
d) We may note that some of the evidences used by the scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam are ineffective and sometimes even false, because it implies rejecting the truth which is established by the Qur'an and Sunnah.
They rejected the texts which state that Allah is in heaven (sky), because they claimed that Allah cannot be in a particular direction, because that would mean limiting Him. But the texts clearly state that He is in heaven. Their mistake was in thinking that His being in heaven means that He is contained. They also erred when they tried to apply human analogies to the Divine nature.
Another difference is that the Qur'an gives details about eemaan, as Jundub ibn 'Abdullah said, "We learnt about eemaan, then we learnt the Qur'an, then our eemaan increased."
The Qur'an describes for us our Lord, and tells us that He has a Face and Hand, and He can hear and see. It recounts for us His Names and Attributes, telling us that He is Ar-Rahmaan (the Most Beneficent), Ar-Raheem (the Most Merciful), Al-Malik (the King), Al-Quddoos (the Holy), As-Salaam (the One Free from all defects), Al-Mu'min (the Giver of security), Al-Muhaymin (the Watcher over His creatures), Al-'Azeez (the Almighty), Al-Jabbaar (the Compeller)... It tells us of His deeds and creations, and describes for us the Resurrection and its terrors, as well as Paradise and Hell, as if we can see them.
But in the case of 'ilm al-kalaam, the most that it tells us is the briefest of descriptions, without any details at all.
There is no meeting point between religion and philosophy, because they are two different methodologies, from beginning to end, in their ways and styles, in the influence they wield, and above all - in their origins and sources.
Islam does not need anything else to complete or perfect it, because it has been made perfect by the All-Knowing, All-Aware:
... الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي ....This day, I have perfected your religion for you, [and] completed My Favour upon you... (Qur'an 5: 3)
We do not need to reconcile Islam to philosophy, or Islam to Judaism or Christianity, or Islam to communism or socialism. Islam is true, and there is no falsehood in it.
لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ ...Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it...) (Qur'an 41:42)
Anything else is either falsehood, or truth mixed with falsehood. Islam did not come to be ruled by people's ideas; rather it came to dominate life and living beings and to correct whatever beliefs and ideas are crooked.
We must keep our 'aqeedah and shari'ah distinct and pure, as our Lord wants us to do:
... قد تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيّ ......Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path...(Qur'an 2: 256)
If it is mixed with something else, this leads to the confusion which Allah (SWT) condemned in the case of the People of the Book (the Jews and the Christians):
يَنأَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَلْبِسُونَ الْحَقِّ بِالْبَاطِلِ ...(O' people of the Scripture [Jews and Christians]: 'Why do you mix truth with falsehood...?' (Qur'an 3: 71)
01. Darraaz, Ad-Deen, 59, 60.
2. Darraaz, Ad-Deen, 73.
3. Al-'Aqqaad, Kitaab-Allah, 129.
4. Al-'Aqqaad, Kitaab-Allah, 129.
6. Darraaz, Ad-Deen, 73.
7. Majmoo' al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 2/1, 25. He (Ibn Taymiya) has mentioned this and we have only summarized it.
8. Al-'Ilm yad'oo ila 'l-eemaan.
9. Sayyid Qutb, Khașaa'iş at-Tasawwur al-Islami, Pp. 16.
10. Many scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam and philosophers make the mistake of thinking that the Qur'an and Sunnah are merely narrative (as opposed to analytical - Translator), and that they do not discuss rational evidence. The truth of the matter is that the Qur'an explains evidence as needed to impart knowledge of Allah and His Oneness in a manner which none of them are able to do. The ultimate aim of the scholars of 'ilm al-kalaam has been explained by the Qur'an briefly and in the best manner, such as the parables given by Allah (SWT), in His Book, of which He says:
And indeed We have put forth every kind of example in this Qur'an, for mankind.) (Qur'an 18:54)
The examples given are rational analogies.
11. Majmoo' al-Fataawa: Ibn Taymiya 4/50.
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