THE PRINCIPLE OF LOVE & DESIRE: Love & Desire Are the Foundations of Religion

Al-muhabbah and al-iradah are the basis of every action and movement. The greatest form of these two is loving Allah and desir- ing to worship Him alone, with no partners. The greatest falsehood is for people to take others besides Allah and love them as they love Allah, and they make them equals and partners.

Al-muhabbah and al-iradah are the basis of every religion, whether the religion is righteous or corrupt. The religion is made up of inner and outer actions, and al-muhabbah and al-iradah are the basis of all of that. Ad-din (religion) is obedience, worship, and manners or characteristics. It is the type of obedience that is permanent, insepa- rable, and comes about by way of habits and characteristics, unlike a one-off type of obedience. Because of this, religion has been defined as habits and characteristics, such as Allah's saying:

وَ اِنَّکَ لَعَلٰی خُلُقٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۴

Indeed, you (O Muhammad) are upon great character. [Surah al-Qalam 68:4]


Ibn 'Abbas said, "(This means) upon a great religion." Sufyan bin 'Uyaynah mentioned this from him, and Imam Ahmad took this tafsir from Sufyan bin 'Uyaynah.

The word "ad-daydan"15 is used with the meaning of "habit," such as the saying, "This is his daydan," i.e., "his permanent habit."

The root verb "dan" can refer to both the conqueror and the conquered, or the ruler and the subject. In terms of the din, as it relates to the obedient, it encompasses the meanings of obedience, worship, humility, and submission.

I mentioned previously that the word "worship" (ibadah) involves complete love and complete submission, and the word din possesses the same meaning. It is that which people submit themselves to openly and inwardly out of love and humility, unlike obedience to a ruler, which could be done just openly.

Allah named the Day of Judgment as the Day of the Din, such as in His saying:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ 

The Owner of the Day of Recompense [Surah al-Fatihah 1:4]

Ibn 'Abbas and a number of others from the Salaf said, "The Day when the slaves will profess their actions to Allah; if they are good, then they will receive good, and if they are bad, then they will receive bad," and that includes their recompense and judgment.

Therefore, if someone calls it the Day of Judgment or the Day of Recompense, then they have mentioned some of the characteristics of din. Allah, the Most High, said:

کَلَّا بَلۡ تُکَذِّبُوۡنَ بِالدِّیۡنِ ۙ﴿۹ وَ اِنَّ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَحٰفِظِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۰  کِرَامًا کَاتِبِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۱ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲  اِنَّ الۡاَبۡرَارَ لَفِیۡ نَعِیۡمٍ ﴿ۚ۱۳ وَ اِنَّ الۡفُجَّارَ لَفِیۡ جَحِیۡمٍ ﴿ۚۖ۱۴  یَّصۡلَوۡنَهَا یَوۡمَ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿۱۵ وَ مَا هُمۡ عَنۡهَا بِغَآئِبِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۱۶ وَ مَاۤ اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا یَوۡمُ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۱۷  ثُمَّ مَاۤ اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا یَوۡمُ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿ؕ۱۸  یَوۡمَ لَا تَمۡلِکُ نَفۡسٌ لِّنَفۡسٍ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ الۡاَمۡرُ یَوۡمَئِذٍ لِّلّٰهِ ﴿۱۹

Nay! But you deny the recompense (reward for good deeds and punishment for evil deeds). But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you, kiraman (honorable), kätibin (writing down your deeds). They know all that you do. Verily, the abrar (pious and righteous) will be in delight (Paradise). And verily, the fujjär (the wicked, disbelievers, sinners, and evildoers) will be in the blazing Fire (Hell), in which they will enter and taste its burning flame on the Day of Recompense. And they (al-fujjar) will not be absent therefrom (i.e., will not leave Hell). And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is? Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is? (It will be) the Day when no person shall have power (to do) anything for another, and the decision, that Day, will be (wholly) with Allah. [Surah al-Infitar 82:9-19]

And Allah, the Most High, said:

 فَلَوۡ لَاۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ غَیۡرَ مَدِیۡنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۶  تَرۡجِعُوۡنَهَاۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۸۷ 

Then why do you not, if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense (punishment, etc.), bring back the soul (to its body), if you are truthful? [Surah al-Waqi'ah 56:86-87]

The word madinin (مَدِينِينَ) here means: recompensed, subjugated, ruled, or rewarded.

15 This word comes from the same root verb as "din."

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