THE PRINCIPLE OF LOVE & DESIRE: Al-Hubb (Love) & al-Bughd (Hate)

Al-Hubb (Love) & al-Bughd (Hate)

All praise be to Allah; we praise Him and seek His help, His guidance, and His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of our own selves and the wickedness of our actions. Whomever Allah guides, there is none to misguide him, and whomever Allah misguides, there is none to guide him. We bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, alone with no partners, and we bear witness that Muhammad is his beloved slave and Messenger; may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, his family, and his Companions.

As for what follows:

This is an important principle concerning love and its connected issues written by the Scholar of Islam, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah .


The Shaykh said:
This book is about love and hate, and the things from them that are praiseworthy and blameworthy. The foundation of every action and movement in the world is a-hubb (love) and al-iradah (desire). Albugh (hate) and al-kinihah (dislike), on the other hand, obstruct and oppose everything that is achieved by love, so they are the foundation of every abandonment and neglect. This is if you define abandonment of an action as something existential, as it is defined by many of the people of halim (rhetoric); but if what is meant by abandonment and neglect is the absence of action, then the absence of action can sometimes be due to an absence of the requirements of love and desire, or it can be due to their opposite- hate and dislike.

Action, on the other hand, can only come about from love and desire; even actions that are disliked or hated are compelled by love and desire, because they are done in order to achieve something that is desired. To clarify: Love and desire are either attained directly or indirectly, such as when a person does something he dislikes to reach his objective (ie., the thing he loves or desires), such as drink- ing unpleasant medicine or doing things that oppose his desire or t patience.

Therefore, these actions may be disliked from some aspects, but they are still performed out of love and desire, although the love is nut for the action itself but rather for what it will lead to. For example, a person desites the care that comes from drinking medicine, even if he dislikes the medicine; and he loves Allah's mercy and protec rion from Elis punishment, which comes from abandoning one's clesires, as Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ اَمَّا مَنۡ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهٖ وَ نَهَی النَّفۡسَ عَنِ الۡهَوٰی ﴿ۙ۴۰

No living person would leave something they desire unless it was for something they desire more. Likewise, no one would do something they dislike unless their desire for the outcome was greater than their dislike. Furthermore, no one would leave something they desire unless their dislike of the outcome was greater than their desire.

Therefore, love and desire are the foundations, the causes, and the prerequisites of hate and dislike. There is no hate without love. A hated action in the world only exists due to its opposition to something that is loved. If love did not exist for that thing, there would be no hatred for its opposite. However, love is different- one may love something for what it is, not out of opposition to something hated. A person's hatred and anger is elicited by the things that prevent him from the things he loves, and an obstacle and a prerequisite that he cannot be made to do. It is found that the hatred is more severe if it is for something that prohibits someone from what they love.

Due to this principle, the basis of iman (faith) is loving for Allah's sake and hating for Allah's sake, so the one who loves for Allah, hates for Allah, gives for Allah, and withholds for Allah, has completed his iman.

Love and desire are the foundations of hate and dislike, and the foundations for the removal of the things that are hated and disliked. Therefore, hatred does not exist except for love, and it cannot be removed except with love.

Hence, love is the basis of everything that exists, and the motivation of everything that one seeks to make present. The motivation to make something present is a real affair, but it prevents the existence of its opposite, so it is the basis of every hated thing that exists, and both an obstacle and a prerequisite of hate and dislike.

This is the status of love, as we have mentioned: love and desire are the basis of every movement in the world. Indeed, the natural state of a body is rest, so when a body leaves this state of rest It will be inclined to return to that state. Any movement must come from a force applied to that body; therefore, every voluntary movement comes from desire.

Movement is of three types: it is either voluntary, involuntary, or forced. If the movement is intentional, then it is voluntary movement; if the movement is done naturally without thinking, then it is involuntary movement; and if it is neither of those, then it is forced movement.

As we have clarified, every movement in the heavens and the earth- such as the movement of the celestial bodies like the sun, moon, and stars, and the movement of the winds, clouds, rain, plants, etc. are all moved by Allah's angels who have been entrusted with the heavens and the earth, those who do not speak out of turn and who perform His orders without question, as Allah, the Most High, said:

فَالۡمُدَبِّرٰتِ اَمۡرًا ۘ﴿۵

And by those angels who arrange to do the commands of their Lord. [Surah an-Nazi'at 79:5]


فَالۡمُقَسِّمٰتِ اَمۡرًا ۙ﴿۴

And those (angels) who distribute (provisions, rain, and other blessings) by (Allah's) command. [Surah adh-Dhariyat 51:4]

As well as the evidences from the Book and the Sunnah that discuss the different types of angels and their entrustment with the differ- ent aspects of the creation.

The word malak (angel) suggests that he is a messenger sent to execute the command of another, so they have no free choice. In fact, none of the angels can even Intercede (for the believers on the Day of Judgment) until after they have been permitted to do so by Allah, and only for those with whom He is pleased:

وَ مَا نَتَنَزَّلُ اِلَّا بِاَمۡرِ رَبِّکَ ۚ لَهٗ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡنَا وَ مَا خَلۡفَنَا وَ مَا بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ ۚ وَ مَا کَانَ رَبُّکَ نَسِیًّا ﴿ۚ۶۴ رَبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَهُمَا فَاعۡبُدۡهُ وَ اصۡطَبِرۡ لِعِبَادَتِهٖ ؕ هَلۡ تَعۡلَمُ لَهٗ سَمِیًّا ﴿۶۵

And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord (O Muhammad). To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between those two, and your Lord is never forget- ful, Lord of the heavens and the carth and all that is between them, so worship Him (alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him? [Surah Maryam 19:64-65]

Therefore, if this is indeed the case, then all of that love, want, action, and movement are forms of worshiping Allah, Lord of the earth and the heavens, as we have mentioned in other books. Hence, the basis of praiseworthy love is what Allah has commanded His creation to do and the reason for creating the creation, which is to worship Him alone without partners; and worship requires the utmost degree of love and humility.

Even though love is a category that encompasses many different levels and characteristics, the type most commonly mentioned in relation to Allah is that which is specific to Him and befitting of Him, like worship and repentance, because worship and repentance are of no benefit unless they are for Allah alone.

Unrestricted love (i.c., without restrictions from loving other than Allah) may also be mentioned; however, this is mixed with shirk (i.e., loving others alongside Allah), as He, the Most High, said:

 وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَنۡدَادًا یُّحِبُّوۡنَهُمۡ کَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلّٰهِ

And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe love Allah more (than anything else). [Surah al-Baqarah 2:165]

Due to this, this type of love is the worst type of love, while love of Allah is the greatest type of love. In fact, worshiping Allah alone without partners is the basis of happiness, without which no one will be safe from the punishment, whereas worshiping other than Allah is the basis of misery that causes the perpetrator to remain in the punishment of the Fire.

The people of rawhid are those who love Allah and worship Him alone without partners. None of them will remain in the Fire. Those who take others for worship besides Allah love them as they love Allah and they worship them. They are the people of shirk, about whom Allah, the Most High, said:

 اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَغۡفِرُ اَنۡ یُّشۡرَکَ بِهٖ

Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship. [Surah an-Nisa' 4:48]

The whole of the Qur'an is made up of commands for loving Allah and the manifestations [of loving Allah), and the forbiddance of unrestricted love and its manifestations, and examples, analogies, and stories of the people committed to both types. Loving Allah was the call of every messenger, may Allah bless them and give them peace; they said:

اعۡبُدُوا اللّٰهَ مَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اِلٰهٍ غَیۡرُهٗ

Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. [Surah al-A'raf 7:59]

And for that they fought the mushrikun (idolaters), as the Seal of the Prophets said: 

أمرت أن أقاتل الناس حتى يشهدوا أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمداً رسول الله، ويقيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة، فإذا فعلوا ذلك، عصموا مني دماءهم وأموالهم إلا بحق الإسلام وحسابهم على الله . 

I have been commanded to fight against the people till they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and to establish the prayer, and to pay zakah; and if they do this, then their blood and property are secured except by the rights of Islam, and their accountability is  left to Allah. 1

Allah, the Most High, said:

شَرَعَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ الدِّیۡنِ مَا وَصّٰی بِهٖ نُوۡحًا وَّ الَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مَا وَصَّیۡنَا بِهٖۤ اِبۡرٰهِیۡمَ وَ مُوۡسٰی وَ عِیۡسٰۤی اَنۡ اَقِیۡمُوا الدِّیۡنَ وَ لَا تَتَفَرَّقُوۡا فِیۡهِ ؕ کَبُرَ عَلَی الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ مَا تَدۡعُوۡهُمۡ اِلَیۡهِ

He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nüh, and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad ), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Müsä, and 'Isă, saying you should establish the religion (ie., to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (i.c., various sects in religion). Intolerable for the mushrikun is that to which you (O Muhammad) invite them. [Surah ash-Shura 42:13]

This is why he said in the hadith agreed upon by al-Bukhari and Muslim and narrated by Anas bin Malik:

يكون الله ورسوله ثلاث من كن فيه وجد بهن حلاوة الإيمان : أحب إليه مما سواهما، وأن يحب المرء لا يحبه إلا لله، وأن يكره أنيعود في الكفر بعد أن أنقذه الله منه كما يكره أن يقذف في النار.

There are three qualities, whoever has them will taste the sweetness of iman: loving Allah and His Messenger more than anyone else; loving a person only for Allah's sake; and abhorring returning to disbelief after Allah has saved him from it as he would abhor to be thrown into the Fire.2

Anas also narrated that the Prophet said:

لا يُؤْمِنُ أَحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَوَالِدِهِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ.

None of you believe until I am dearer to him than his child, his father, and the whole of mankind.3

And in Sahih al-Bukhari, Umar said:

يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ لأَنتَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا مِنْ نَفْسِي فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم "لا" وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ نفْسِك . فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ فَإِنَّهُ الآن والله لأنتَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ نَفْسِي . فَقَالَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الآن يا عُمَرُ.

"O Allah's Messenger! You are dearer to me than everything except my own self." The Prophet said, "No, by Him in Whose Hand is my soul, (you will not have complete faith) till I am dearer to you than your own self." Then 'Umar said to him, "Now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my own self." The Prophet said, "Now, O 'Umar, (now you are a believer).4

There are more evidences narrated concerning the excellence of la ilaha ill-Allah than we have the space to document here. It is the best speech due to it containing the best forms of knowledge and love, like the hadith reported in the books of Sunnah:

أَفْضَلُ الذِّكْرِ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله ..

The best remembrance is la ilaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah)...5

The greatest verse from the Qur'an is the one that begins with this noble statement, as it is reported in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet said to Ubayy bin Ka'b:

يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ، أَتَدْرِي أَيُّ آيَةٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ أَعْظَمُ؟ قَالَ: اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلاهُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ . فَضَرَبَ بيده صَدْرِي وَقَالَ: وَاللَّهِ لِيَهْنِكَ الْعِلْمُ أَبَاالْمُنْذِرِ.

"O Abul-Mundhir! Do you know which is the greatest verse?" He said: "Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshiped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists" (Ayatul-Kursi). Then he patted me on my chest and said, "May knowledge come easy to you, O Abul-Mundhir."

Therefore, every action is based on love and wanting something that is loved and wanted in and of itself, not for something else, because if everything was loved for the sake of something else, it would result in a loop or a chain. Things can be loved from one perspective and disliked from another, but nothing can be loved for every aspect of its being except Allah alone, and therefore al-ulübi- yyah (divinity, worship, etc.) Is not befitting for anyone but Him, because had there been gods within the heavens and the earth besides Allah, they both would have been ruined.

The ulihiyyah that is spoken about in Allah's Book is worship and devotion, which necessitates that He is the Lord and Creator. The sects from among the people of kalam (rhetoric) believe that ulubi- yyah is the same as rubablyyah (lordship) and that what is intended by the negation of other deities in the Qur'an is a negation of another rabb (lord) that participated with Allah in the creation of the universe, as is found in their books. Rather, the Qur'an negates the worship of other than Allah, or taking other than Him as a deity that one loves and humbles oneself to in the way one would to a god. This is apparent in many of the verses of the Qur'an, such as:

 وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَنۡدَادًا یُّحِبُّوۡنَهُمۡ کَحُبِّ اللّٰ

And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:165]

And because of this, Ibrahim said:

لَاۤ اُحِبُّ الۡاٰفِلِیۡنَ 

I do not love that which disappears, [Surah al-An'am 6:76]

Now that it is known that every living thing has iradah (want, desire, free will, etc.) and performs actions according to its ability, and every movement is based on love and desire, then it should be known that everything in existence is only correct if all of the creation's love and all of their movements/actions are for Allah, the Most High, because none of it would exist if Allah had not created it. This is why Allah said:

لَوۡ کَانَ فِیۡهِمَاۤ اٰلِهَۃٌ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ لَفَسَدَتَا

Had there been therein (in the heavens and the carth) gods besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined. [Surah al-Anbiya' 21:22]

Allah didn't say, "They would not exist," since He could make them remain in a state of ruin; but they cannot be correct unless Allah is worshiped alone, without partners, because the rectification of a living being will only happen when his intentions and choices are rectified, and likewise the actions and movements can only be recti- fied by correct choices and intentions.

This is why the most comprehensive, encompassing, and cloquent thing ever said was his saying:

إِنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ وَإِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِي مَا نَوَى.

Actions are only judged by intentions and a man will only have what he intended.6

This encompasses every action and every intention.

Therefore, every action in this world is in accordance with the person's intent, and the person will only get what he intends, loves, and desires from his actions. The hadith is not specific or restricted as some groups believe those who claim that the intention meant in the hadith is the intention that is required when performing acts of the shari'ah. Rather, an Intention is present in every action of every living thing, just as the Prophet said:

أَصْدَقُ الأسْمَاءِ حَارِثٌ وَهَمَّامٌ .

The truest names are Harith and Hammām.7

Harith means "worker" or "earner" and Hammam means "someone who intends or wants," because every human being is moved to act by his desires and intentions.

As we have explained, love and desire are the basis of every action, so every action that occurs in the world emanates from desire and love.

Love and desire can be categorized into something loved for Allah's sake or not loved for Allah's sake, and likewise actions and movements. This means that love has effects and consequences, and they can be pious, praiseworthy, and beneficial, or they can be the opposite of that.

The praiseworthy form of muhabbah is love that brings a benefit to the one who possesses it, and that benefit is happiness. The harmful form of muhabbah is love that earns the one who possesses it harm and misery.

Of course, no one would choose to love something that is harmful, but due to their ignorance and self-oppressive natures, their souls lead them to either what is destructive and non-beneficial (and this is what is meant by self-oppressive), or they lead them to what they love and desire, not knowing whether that thing is beneficial or harmful (and that is what is meant by ignorance). It could also be due to corrupt beliefs, which is what happens when someone follows both ignorance and desire. All of these are from the affairs of Jahiliyyah (Pre-Islamic Ignorance).

At its foundation, desire is actually something praiseworthy, if it is used in the correct way. For example, the desire to visit relations is a praiseworthy one, and it is the basis of keeping the ties of kinship. However, if a person follows his desires until he no longer acts fairly regarding his family and others, then this becomes oppression, as Allah, the Most High, said:

وَ اِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَاعۡدِلُوۡا وَ لَوۡ کَانَ ذَا قُرۡبٰی

Say the truth even if a near relative is concerned. [Stirah al-An'am 6:152]

And Allah said:

کُوۡنُوۡا قَوّٰمِیۡنَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ شُهَدَآءَ لِلّٰهِ وَ لَوۡ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ اَوِ الۡوَالِدَیۡنِ

Stand firmly for justice as witnesses to Allah, even if it is against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin. (Surah an-Nisa' 4:135)

Likewise, love of food, drink, and women is praiseworthy, because it is this desire that keeps humans alive and ensures the continuance of their progeny, but it must be with justice and moderation, as Allah, the Most High, said:

 یٰبَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ خُذُوۡا زِیۡنَتَکُمۡ عِنۡدَ کُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ وَّ کُلُوۡا وَ اشۡرَبُوۡا وَ لَا تُسۡرِفُوۡا ۚ اِنَّهٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡرِفِیۡنَ ﴿۳۱

O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes), while praying and going around the Ka'bali, and cat and drink, but waste not by extravagance; certainly He (Allah) likes not al-musrifin (those who waste by extrav- agance). [Surah al-A'rif 7:31)

And Allah, the Most High, said:

اِلَّا عَلٰۤی اَزۡوَاجِهِمۡ اَوۡ مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُهُمۡ فَاِنَّهُمۡ غَیۡرُ مَلُوۡمِیۡنَ ۚ﴿۶  فَمَنِ ابۡتَغٰی وَرَآءَ ذٰلِکَ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ هُمُ الۡعٰدُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۷

Except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, for then, they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors. [Sarah al-Mu'minin 23:6-7]

So if someone exceeds the limits of what is just fi.e., what is legislated by the sharl'ab), then he will become an oppressor in accordance to his oppression and enmity.

Indeed, we mentioned elsewhere that al-Mashri' (the Legislated), an-Nafi' (the One Who Benefits), as-Salih (the Righteous One), al-Adl (the Just), al-Haqq (the Truth), and al-Hasan (the Good) are all names of an equal nature; their essence is one even if their descriptions may differ, because they are all from the beautiful names of Allah. Allah's names and the names of His Book, religion, and Prophet may differ, but the essence is one. Hence, every righteous act is beneficial for the one who performs it and vice versa; everything that is beneficial and righteous is legislated by the shari'ah and vice versa; and everything that is righteous and legis lated is the truth and is just and fair.

One may take two of these characteristics and use them as evidence for the others. For example, if you know that Allah has legislated and commanded an action, then you know from this obligation that it is obedience to Allah and His Messenger, and that this action must therefore be righteous, beneficial, correct, and fair, and this is evidenced by the textual proofs (ie., the Qur'an and Sunnah). Or you may know that something is righteous, just, or good, and then use this as evidence that it is legislated by the shari'ah (ie., in the absence of clear textual proofs). This is a method of deriving an evidence for the legislation of an action, known as istilah (pubic interest), istihsan (juristic preference), or giyar (analogy).

This second method can be very dangerous, and many people fall into mistakes in its application because the reality of an action. is often hidden, and the only one with knowledge of that is the Messenger of Allah, as it should be.

* Istilah Employing maslahah (public interest) as an evidence,

which is known as maslahah mursalah. This is when a scholar sees something to be beneficial (for general good), and there is nothing in the shari'ah that contradicts that view, so its benefits are used as evidence that the action is legislated by the shari'ah.

. Istilsan: When a scholar believes something to be good, and then uses its apparent goodness as evidence that it is an action legislated by the shari'ah.

Qiyas: When something resembles something else and then a

scholar uses this resemblance as an evidence that the two things share the same ruling. However, the most knowledgeable people are those whose opinions, istihsan, istilah, and qiyas are in accordance with the textual evidences. Mujahid said: "The best form of worship is good

judgment, which is the judgment that follows the Sunnah." Because of this, Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ یَرَی الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ الَّذِیۡۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ هُوَ الۡحَقَّ ۙ وَ یَهۡدِیۡۤ اِلٰی صِرَاطِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَمِیۡدِ ﴿۶

And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you (O Muhammad) from your Lord is the truth. [Surah Saba' 34:6]

This is the reason the Salaf used to call the people who use their judgment in opposition to the Sunnah and the shari'ah in terms of 'aqidah and figh, the People of Desires, because a judgment that opposes the Sunnah is ignorance, not knowledge, and someone who does this is following his desires without knowledge.

This is apparent when Allah mentions in the Qur'an those who follow their desires without knowledge and He rebukes those who follow their desires without guidance from Him. He, the Most High, said:

وَ مَنۡ اَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَوٰىهُ بِغَیۡرِ هُدًی مِّنَ اللّٰهِ

And who  is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allah. [Surah al-Qasas 28:50)

And He, the Most High, said:

وَ اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا لَّیُضِلُّوۡنَ بِاَهۡوَآئِهِمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ

And surely many do lead (mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. [Surah al-An'am 6:119]

Those who follow their desires do so without knowledge, because there is no knowledge other than the guidance with which Allah sent His messengers, as Allah said:

فَإِمَّا يَأْتِينَكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَى وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةٌ ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَى
 فَاِمَّا یَاۡتِیَنَّکُمۡ مِّنِّیۡ هُدًی ۬ۙ فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَایَ فَلَا یَضِلُّ وَ لَا یَشۡقٰی ﴿۱۲۳  وَ مَنۡ اَعۡرَضَ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِیۡ فَاِنَّ لَهٗ مَعِیۡشَۃً ضَنۡکًا وَّ نَحۡشُرُهٗ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اَعۡمٰی ﴿۱۲۴

Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance shall neither go astray nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My reminder (i.e., neither believes in this Qur'an nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection. [Surah Ta-Ha 20:123-124)

And because of this, Allah dispraised desires in many places in the Qur'an.

The followers of desires do so for the sake of love and hate, as Allah, the Most High, said:

یٰدَاوٗدُ اِنَّا جَعَلۡنٰکَ خَلِیۡفَۃً فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعِ الۡهَوٰی فَیُضِلَّکَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰهِ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَضِلُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰهِ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ شَدِیۡدٌۢ بِمَا نَسُوۡا یَوۡمَ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿۲۶

O Dawud! Verily! We have placed you as a succes- sor on earth, so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire, for it will mislead from the path of Allah. Verily! Those who wander astray from the path of Allah (shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day you of Reckoning. (Surah Swad 38:26)

Here, the followers of desires are those who oppose a correct and true judgment. Allah, the Most High, said:

 یٰۤاَیُّهَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا کُوۡنُوۡا قَوّٰمِیۡنَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ شُهَدَآءَ لِلّٰهِ وَ لَوۡ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ اَوِ الۡوَالِدَیۡنِ وَ الۡاَقۡرَبِیۡنَ ۚ اِنۡ یَّکُنۡ غَنِیًّا اَوۡ فَقِیۡرًا فَاللّٰهُ اَوۡلٰی بِهِمَا ۟ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الۡهَوٰۤی اَنۡ تَعۡدِلُوۡا ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَلۡوٗۤا اَوۡ تُعۡرِضُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۱۳۵

who believe! Stand firmly for justice, as you witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, he he rich or poor, Allah is a better protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you may avoid justice, and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily, Allah is ever well-acquainted with what you do. (Surah an-Nisa' 4:135)

Here, the followers of desires are those who oppose honest testi- mony, and honesty is Justice; therefore, opposition to this equates to gulm (oppression).

And indeed, the Messenger of Allah forbade following the desires of the creation. Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ لَنۡ تَرۡضٰی عَنۡکَ الۡیَهُوۡدُ وَ لَا النَّصٰرٰی حَتّٰی تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمۡ ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّ هُدَی اللّٰهِ هُوَ الۡهُدٰی ؕ وَ لَئِنِ اتَّبَعۡتَ اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ بَعۡدَ الَّذِیۡ جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡعِلۡمِ ۙ مَا لَکَ مِنَ اللّٰهِ مِنۡ وَّلِیٍّ وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرٍ ﴿۱۲۰

Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the guidance of Allah (ie., Islamic monotheism), that is the (only) guidance. And if you (O Muhammad) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of knowledge (l.e., the Qur'an), then you would have against Allah neither any wali (protec- tor or guardian) nor any helper. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:120)

So he forbade following the desires of the People of the Book after receiving knowledge.

And likewise, He, the Most High, said in other verses:

وَ اَنِ احۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَهُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ وَ احۡذَرۡهُمۡ اَنۡ یَّفۡتِنُوۡکَ عَنۡۢ بَعۡضِ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ اِلَیۡکَ ؕ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاعۡلَمۡ اَنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰهُ اَنۡ یُّصِیۡبَهُمۡ بِبَعۡضِ ذُنُوۡبِهِمۡ

And so judge (yuu O Muhammad ) between them by what Allah has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they turn you (0 Muhammad ) far away from some of that which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that Allah's will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. (Surah al-Ma'idalt 5:49]

And He, the Most High, said:

قُلۡ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَآءَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَشۡهَدُوۡنَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ حَرَّمَ هٰذَا ۚ فَاِنۡ شَهِدُوۡا فَلَا تَشۡهَدۡ مَعَهُمۡ ۚ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَهۡوَآءَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ وَ هُمۡ بِرَبِّهِمۡ یَعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۰

Say: "Bring forward your witnesses, who can testify that Allah has forbidden this.” Then if they testify, do not testify (O Muhammad) with them. And you should not follow the vain desires of those who deny Our ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and believe not in the Hereafter, and they hold others as equal (in worship) with their Lord. [Surah al-An'am 6:150)

[Allah] forbade him from following the desires of the mushrikun from among the People of the Book, and warned him that they would turn him away from the truth that Allah revealed to him. This contains a forbiddance of following the desires of anyone who opposes His shari'ah and His Sunnah, and likewise the people of desires from this ummah (i.c., the Muslims).

Indeed, Allah made this clear with His saying:

 ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنٰکَ عَلٰی شَرِیۡعَۃٍ مِّنَ الۡاَمۡرِ فَاتَّبِعۡهَا وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَهۡوَآءَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸ اِنَّهُمۡ لَنۡ یُّغۡنُوۡا عَنۡکَ مِنَ اللّٰهِ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ اِنَّ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ بَعۡضُهُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءُ بَعۡضٍ ۚ وَ اللّٰهُ وَلِیُّ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹

Then We put you (O Muhammad) on an ordained way concerning the matter (of religion); so follow it and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know. [Surah al-Jathiyah 45:18-19]

Here, He, the Most High, commanded the Messenger to follow the shari'ah and forbade him from following anything that opposes it, which is the desires of those who are ignorant.

Allah, the Most High, said:

وَ لَوِ اتَّبَعَ الۡحَقُّ اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمٰوٰتُ وَ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ مَنۡ فِیۡهِنَّ

And if the truth had been in accordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein, would have been ruined. (Surah al-Mu'minun 23:71]

And Allah said:

 قُلۡ یٰۤاَهۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُوۡا فِیۡ دِیۡنِکُمۡ غَیۡرَ الۡحَقِّ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡۤا اَهۡوَآءَ قَوۡمٍ قَدۡ ضَلُّوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ اَضَلُّوۡا کَثِیۡرًا وَّ ضَلُّوۡا عَنۡ سَوَآءِ السَّبِیۡلِ ﴿۷۷

Say (O Muhammad): "O People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Exceed not the limits in your religion (by believing in something) other than the truth, and do not follow the vain desires of people who went astray in times gone by, and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path. (Surah al-Ma'idah 5:77)

Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ مَا لَکُمۡ اَلَّا تَاۡکُلُوۡا مِمَّا ذُکِرَ اسۡمُ اللّٰهِ عَلَیۡهِ وَ قَدۡ فَصَّلَ لَکُمۡ مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِلَّا مَا اضۡطُرِرۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡهِ ؕ وَ اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا لَّیُضِلُّوۡنَ بِاَهۡوَآئِهِمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ

And why should you not eat of that (meat) on which Allah's name has been pronounced (at the time of slaughtering the animal), while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity? And surely many do lead (mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. (Surah al-An'am 6:119]

Allah, the Most High, said:

قَالُوۡا لَوۡ لَاۤ اُوۡتِیَ مِثۡلَ مَاۤ اُوۡتِیَ مُوۡسٰی ؕ اَوَ لَمۡ یَکۡفُرُوۡا بِمَاۤ اُوۡتِیَ مُوۡسٰی مِنۡ قَبۡلُ

They say, "Why is he not given the like of what was given to Musa?" Did they not disbelieve in what was given to Musă of old? (Surah al-Qaşaş 28:48]

To his saying:

قُلۡ فَاۡتُوۡا بِکِتٰبٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰهِ هُوَ اَهۡدٰی مِنۡهُمَاۤ اَتَّبِعۡهُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۴۹  فَاِنۡ لَّمۡ یَسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡا لَکَ فَاعۡلَمۡ اَنَّمَا یَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ ؕ وَ مَنۡ اَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَوٰىهُ بِغَیۡرِ هُدًی مِّنَ اللّٰهِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَهۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۰

Say (to them, O Muhammad): "Then bring a book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two (the Tawrah and the Qur'an) that I may follow it, if you are truthful." But if they answer you not (i.e., do not believe in your doctrine of Islamic monotheism, nor follow you), then know that they only fallow their own desires. And who is more astray than one who follows his own desires, without guidance from Allah? [Surah al-Qaşaş 28:49-50)

And Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ مِنۡهُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّسۡتَمِعُ اِلَیۡکَ ۚ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا خَرَجُوۡا مِنۡ عِنۡدِکَ قَالُوۡا لِلَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ مَاذَا قَالَ اٰنِفًا ۟ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ طَبَعَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِهِمۡ وَ اتَّبَعُوۡۤا اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ ﴿۱۶  وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اهۡتَدَوۡا زَادَهُمۡ هُدًی وَّ اٰتٰهُمۡ تَقۡوٰىهُمۡ ﴿۱۷

And among them are some who listen to you (O Muhammad) till, when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: "What has he said just now?" Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed, and they follow their lusts (evil desires). While for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance, and bestows on them their piety. [Surah Muhammad 47:16-17)

Here, Allah mentions that those who are given knowledge are those who know that the revelations from their Lord are the truth, and they understand them. However, those who have a seal over their hearts-those who follow their desires-understand very little of the revelation, to the extent that even if you ask them, "What did the Messenger just say?" they would be unable to answer. This is the situation for those who cannot understand the Book and the Sunnah; rather, they are dubious of them and so they do not under- stand them, or they read them stubbornly, seeking contradictions in them. This is the way of the hypocrite.

Then Alláh described the character of the believer:

 وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اهۡتَدَوۡا زَادَهُمۡ هُدًی وَّ اٰتٰهُمۡ تَقۡوٰىهُمۡ ﴿۱۷

While for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance, and bestows on them their picty. [Surah Muhammad 47:17]

Allah increases those who are guided in their guidance, and this is the opposite of sealing the hearts; and He bestows upon them taqwa (piery, God-fearing, performing good deeds and avoiding sins, etc.), and this is the opposite of those who follow their desires.

Hence, the possessor of taqwa is the antithesis of the possessor of (corrupt) desires. Allah, the Most High, said:

ف وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى )
 وَ اَمَّا مَنۡ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهٖ وَ نَهَی النَّفۡسَ عَنِ الۡهَوٰی ﴿ۙ۴۰  فَاِنَّ الۡجَنَّۃَ هِیَ الۡمَاۡوٰی ﴿ؕ۴۱

But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and restrained himself from impure evil desires and Justs then indeed, Paradise will be his abode. [Surah an-Naziat 79:40-41]

And He said:

اِذۡ جَعَلَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِهِمُ الۡحَمِیَّۃَ حَمِیَّۃَ الۡجَاهِلِیَّۃِ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَکِیۡنَتَهٗ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِهٖ وَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ اَلۡزَمَهُمۡ کَلِمَۃَ التَّقۡوٰی وَ کَانُوۡۤا اَحَقَّ بِهَا وَ اَهۡلَهَا

When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness, the pride and haughtiness of the Time of Ignorance, then Allah sent down His sakinah (calmness and tranquility) upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of piety (i.e., none has the right to be worshiped but Allah), and they were well-entitled to it and worthy of it. [Surah al-Fath 48:26]

So every movement and every action in the world is based on love and desire, and every love or desire that is not based on the love for Allah and the desire to see His Face is futile and corrupt. Mankind and jinn are of two types: those who worship Allah, and those who do not worship Allah or they worship Him alongside others. As for the angels, they are purely worshipers of Allah.

All actions that are not within the capabilities of mankind, jinn, and beasts are the actions of the angels and their movement of all the things in the heavens and earth and everything between them. Therefore, all of these actions are forms of worshiping Allah, containing love and desire for 1lim. All of the creation worships their Creator, except those who are defiant from among mankind and the jinn. The creation's worship of Him is not done as an acceptance of His planning, administration, and creation of them, because this extends to all of creation, even those from mankind who disbelieve in Hun. Nothing and no one can escape His will and His plans for us, and that is by the words of Allah, in which the Propher used to seek refuge. He said:

التي لا يجاوزهن بر ولا فاجر. أعوذ بكلمات الله التامات 

I seek refuge in Allah's complete words that neither goodness nor evil can overtake, 8

This is from the totality and completeness of Allah's lordship and dominion.

Many of the people of speculation and rhetoric (i.c., the philoso- phers) are aware of this type (l.c.. rububiyyah), to the extent that they try to explain the Quranic verses and ahadith concerning worshiping, prostrating to, and glorifying things (ie., al-ulabi- yyah) besides Allah with that (rububiyyah). This specification (i.e.. specifying the forbiddance of shirk to only include rububiyyah) is completely wrong from the perspective of the shari'ah, and even (from the perspective of] logic.

So the logical inference tells them (the philosophers) that every change and movement must have a catalyst and a final objective, or as they say: There are two types of causes: the effective cause and the final cause. What they mentioned (Allah's rubbiyah) is an example of the effective cause (i.c., Allah made all of creation), but some of the creation deem it to also be an example of the final cause (i.e., the objective of the creation), and this is completely wrong.

This is because it is not possible for anything from the creation to be either the effective or final cause (in terms of creating all of creation), since none of the creation can independently be the entire cause. Mankind and animals alike are not even able to produce offspring without the help of another of their kind, as I have explained elsewhere.

Likewise, it is not possible for anything from the creation to be the entire final cause, because none of the creation possesses the ability to reach the final objective, even those who are living. Therefore, the creation, by its nature, possesses these two deficiencies: The first, that nothing from the creation can be the entire cause, neither effective nor final; and the second, that whatever has been caused must have something that caused it, whether the cause is effective or final. 10

Allah is the Lord and owner of everything; there is no Lord except him. He is the God of everything. In the heavens, He is God. On carth, He is God. There is nothing worthy of worship in the heavens or the earth except Allah, and if there were other gods besides Allah, the heavens and the earth would be ruined. There is none worthy of worship except Allah, Glorious and Exalted is He, High above what the oppressive sinners say about Him.

Worshiping the creation and glorifying it is one of the aspects of His divinity, and it is the final objective of the creation and it is for the benefit of the creation.11

As for the shari'ah, Allah distinguishes between these two concepts in His saying:

 اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ یَسۡجُدُ لَهٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الشَّمۡسُ وَ الۡقَمَرُ وَ النُّجُوۡمُ وَ الۡجِبَالُ وَ الشَّجَرُ وَ الدَّوَآبُّ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ ؕ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ حَقَّ عَلَیۡهِ الۡعَذَابُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّهِنِ اللّٰهُ فَمَا لَهٗ مِنۡ مُّکۡرِمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ یَفۡعَلُ مَا یَشَآءُ ﴿ؕٛ۱۸ (سُجود‎‎)

See you not that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, ad-dawwab (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomso ever Allah disgraces, none can honor him. Verily! Allah does what He wills. [Surah al-Hajj 22:18)

Therefore, this sujud (prostration) distinguishes between the many people who do it and the many people who do not, and they are the ones deserving of the final punishment. There is none from among mankind that participates in their own creation, or Allah's lordship over them, or management of their affairs.

Likewise, He distinguishes between these two types in His saying:

 اَفَغَیۡرَ دِیۡنِ اللّٰهِ یَبۡغُوۡنَ وَ لَهٗۤ اَسۡلَمَ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَّ کَرۡهًا وَّ اِلَیۡهِ یُرۡجَعُوۡنَ ﴿۸۳

Do they seek other than the religion of Allah (the true Islamic monotheism, worshiping none but Allah alone), while everything in the heavens and the earth must submit to Him, willingly or unwill- ingly? And to Him shall they all be returned. [Surah Ali Imran 3:83)

Likewise, in His saying:

 ﴾وَ لِلّٰهِ یَسۡجُدُ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَّ کَرۡهًا وَّ ظِلٰلُهُمۡ بِالۡغُدُوِّ وَ الۡاٰصَالِ ﴿ٛ۱۵ (سُجود‎‎) 

And unto Allah (alone) whoever is in the heavens and the earth falls in prostration, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons. [Surah ar-Ra'd 13:15)

He, the Glorified, mentioned in the other verse (ie., Sürah al-Hajj 22:18) that the creation prostrates to Him, except for a large number of mankind, because He only mentioned those who do it willfully. He also mentioned in the verse before it some of mankind's religions:

 اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ الَّذِیۡنَ هَادُوۡا وَ الصّٰبِئِیۡنَ وَ النَّصٰرٰی وَ الۡمَجُوۡسَ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡۤا ٭ۖ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ یَفۡصِلُ بَیۡنَهُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ شَهِیۡدٌ ﴿۱۷

Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, the Christians, the Magians, and those who worship others besides Allah, truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allah is witness over all things, [Surah al-Hajj 22:171

So these verses encompass the situation of all the creation except the jinn, because they are not specifically mentioned, but they come under the categories of those who believe, the Jews, Christians, Sabians, etc., because as Allah said:

 وَّ اَنَّا مِنَّا الصّٰلِحُوۡنَ وَ مِنَّا دُوۡنَ ذٰلِکَ ؕ کُنَّا طَرَآئِقَ قِدَدًا ﴿ۙ۱۱

There are among us some who are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups, cach having a different way (religious sect, etc.). [Surah al-Jinn 72:11]

He, the Glorified, said:

 اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلٰی مَا خَلَقَ اللّٰهُ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ یَّتَفَیَّؤُا ظِلٰلُهٗ عَنِ الۡیَمِیۡنِ وَ الشَّمَآئِلِ سُجَّدًا لِّلّٰهِ وَ هُمۡ دٰخِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸ وَ لِلّٰهِ یَسۡجُدُ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مِنۡ دَآبَّۃٍ وَّ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ وَ هُمۡ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹  یَخَافُوۡنَ رَبَّهُمۡ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِهِمۡ وَ یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ مَا یُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿ٛ۵۰﴾ (سُجود‎‎)

Have they not observed things that Allah has created, (how) their shadows incline to the right and to the left, making prostration unto Allah, and they are lowly? And to Allah prostates all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, of the live moving creatures and the angels, and they are not proud (i.e., they worship their Lord (Allah) with humility). They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded. [Surah an-Nahl 16:48-50]

It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim from the hadith of Abu Dharr that the sun prostrates to Allah when it sets. 15

And Allah, the Most High, said:

اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ یُسَبِّحُ لَهٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الطَّیۡرُ صٰٓفّٰتٍ ؕ کُلٌّ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهٗ وَ تَسۡبِیۡحَهٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰهُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱

Do you not see that Allah is glorified by all who are in the heavens and the earth, and the birds with wings outstretched (in their flight). Each one knows his (means) of prayer and glorifying (Him), and Allah is All-Aware of what they do. (Surah an-Nür 24:41)

Allah said:

سَبَّحَ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ هُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۱

Whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah, and He is the All-Mighty, All-Wise. [Surah al-Hadid 57:1]

 سَبَّحَ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ هُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۱

Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Surah al-Hashr 59:1]

 سَبَّحَ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ هُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۱

Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Surah as-Saff 61:1)

یُسَبِّحُ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ الۡمَلِکِ الۡقُدُّوۡسِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَکِیۡمِ ﴿۱

Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifics Allah, the King (of everything), the Holy, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Surah al-Jumu'ah 62:1]

 یُسَبِّحُ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ لَهُ الۡمُلۡکُ وَ لَهُ الۡحَمۡدُ ۫ وَ هُوَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱

Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifics Allah. His is the dominion, and to Him belong all the praises and thanks, and He is able to do all things. (Surah at-Taghabur 64:1]

 تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمٰوٰتُ السَّبۡعُ وَ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ مَنۡ فِیۡهِنَّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ اِلَّا یُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِهٖ وَ لٰکِنۡ لَّا تَفۡقَهُوۡنَ تَسۡبِیۡحَهُمۡ

The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein glorify Him and there is not a thing but it glorifics His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving, [Surah al-Isra' 17:44]

And Allah, the Most High, said:

وَ لَهٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ عِنۡدَهٗ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِهٖ وَ لَا یَسۡتَحۡسِرُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۹ یُسَبِّحُوۡنَ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّهَارَ لَا یَفۡتُرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰

To Him belongs whosoever is in the heavens and on earth. And those who are near Him (l.e., the angels) are not too proud to worship Him, nor are they weary (of His worship). They (i.c., the angels) glorify His praises night and day, (and) they never slacken (in doing so). [Surah al-Anbiya' 21: 19-20]

And Allah, the Most High, said:

﴾اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ عِنۡدَ رَبِّکَ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِهٖ وَ یُسَبِّحُوۡنَهٗ وَ لَهٗ یَسۡجُدُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰۶ (سُجود‎‎)

Surely, those who are with your Lord (angels) are never too proud to perform acts of worship to Him, but they glorify His praise and prostrate before Him. [Surah al-A'raf 7:206]

And Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ مِنۡ اٰیٰتِهِ الَّیۡلُ وَ النَّهَارُ وَ الشَّمۡسُ وَ الۡقَمَرُ ؕ لَا تَسۡجُدُوۡا لِلشَّمۡسِ وَ لَا لِلۡقَمَرِ وَ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِلّٰهِ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَهُنَّ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اِیَّاهُ تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ ﴿۳۷  فَاِنِ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا فَالَّذِیۡنَ عِنۡدَ رَبِّکَ یُسَبِّحُوۡنَ لَهٗ بِالَّیۡلِ وَ النَّهَارِ وَ هُمۡ لَا یَسۡـَٔمُوۡنَ ﴿ٛ۳۸﴾ (سُجود‎‎)

And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then there are those who are with your Lord (angels) who glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired. [Surah Fussilat 41:37-38]

Allah, the Most High, said:

 لَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفَ الۡمَسِیۡحُ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ عَبۡدًا لِّلّٰهِ وَ لَا الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ الۡمُقَرَّبُوۡنَ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفۡ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِهٖ وَ یَسۡتَکۡبِرۡ فَسَیَحۡشُرُهُمۡ اِلَیۡهِ جَمِیۡعًا ﴿۱۷۲

The Messiah will never be too proud to be a slave to Allah, nor will the angels who are near (to Allab), And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself. [Surah an-Nisa' 4:172]

 فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰهِ وَ اعۡتَصَمُوۡا بِهٖ فَسَیُدۡخِلُهُمۡ فِیۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡهُ وَ فَضۡلٍ ۙ وَّ یَهۡدِیۡهِمۡ اِلَیۡهِ صِرَاطًا مُّسۡتَقِیۡمًا ﴿۱۷۵

So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace (i.e., Paradise), and guide them to Himself by a Straight Path. [Surah an-Nisa' 4:175)

and Allah, the Most High, said:

وَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحۡمٰنُ وَلَدًا ﴿ؕ۸۸ لَقَدۡ جِئۡتُمۡ شَیۡئًا اِدًّا ﴿ۙ۸۹  تَکَادُ السَّمٰوٰتُ یَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَ تَنۡشَقُّ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ تَخِرُّ الۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا ﴿ۙ۹۰  اَنۡ دَعَوۡا لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ وَلَدًا ﴿ۚ۹۱  وَ مَا یَنۡۢبَغِیۡ لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ اَنۡ یَّتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ﴿ؕ۹۲  اِنۡ کُلُّ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّاۤ اٰتِی الرَّحۡمٰنِ عَبۡدًا ﴿ؕ۹۳  لَقَدۡ اَحۡصٰهُمۡ وَ عَدَّهُمۡ عَدًّا ﴿ؕ۹۴ وَ کُلُّهُمۡ اٰتِیۡهِ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ فَرۡدًا ﴿۹۵ 

And they say, "The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son (or offspring or children)" [as the Jews say: 'Uzayr is the son of Allah, and the Christians say that He has begotten a son ('Isa), and the pagan Arabs say that He has begotten daugh- ters (angels, etc.)]. Indeed, you have brought forth (said) a terrible, evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, that they ascribe a son (or offspring or children) to the Most Beneficent (Allah). But it is not suitable for (the majesty of) the Most Beneficent (Allah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And every one of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, protector, or defender). [Surah Maryam 19:88-95)

Allah, the Most High, said:

وَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحۡمٰنُ وَلَدًا سُبۡحٰنَهٗ ؕ بَلۡ عِبَادٌ مُّکۡرَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۶  لَا یَسۡبِقُوۡنَهٗ بِالۡقَوۡلِ وَ هُمۡ بِاَمۡرِهٖ یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷ یَعۡلَمُ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡهِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَهُمۡ وَ لَا یَشۡفَعُوۡنَ ۙ اِلَّا لِمَنِ ارۡتَضٰی وَ هُمۡ مِّنۡ خَشۡیَتِهٖ مُشۡفِقُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸  وَ مَنۡ یَّقُلۡ مِنۡهُمۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اِلٰهٌ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِهٖ فَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِیۡهِ جَهَنَّمَ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِی الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹

And they say: "The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son (or children)." Glory to Him! They (those whom they call children of Allah i.e., the angels, Isa son of Maryam, 'Uzayr, etc.) are but honored slaves. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for those with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him. And if any of them should say, "Verily, I am an ilah (god) besides Him (Allah)," such a one We should recompense with Hell. Thus, We recompense the zaliman (polytheists and wrongdoers, etc.). [Surah al-Anbiya' 21:26-29)

Allah, the Most High, said:

هُوَ الَّذِیۡ یُرِیۡکُمُ الۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفًا وَّ طَمَعًا وَّ یُنۡشِیٴُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ ﴿ۚ۱۲  وَ یُسَبِّحُ الرَّعۡدُ بِحَمۡدِهٖ وَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ مِنۡ خِیۡفَتِهٖ ۚ وَ یُرۡسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَیُصِیۡبُ بِهَا مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ هُمۡ یُجَادِلُوۡنَ فِی اللّٰهِ ۚ وَ هُوَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡمِحَالِ ﴿ؕ۱۳

It is He who shows you the lightning, as a fear (for travelers) and as a hope (for those who wait for rain). And it is He Who brings up (or originates) the clouds, heavy (with water). And thunder glorifies and praises Him, and so do the angels because of His awe; He sends the thunderbolts, and therewith He strikes whom He wills, yet they (disbelievers) dispute about Allah. And He is mighty in strength and severe in punishment. (Surah ar-Ra'd 13:12-13)

Allah, the Most High, said:

 وَ اِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّکَ لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنِّیۡ جَاعِلٌ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ خَلِیۡفَۃً ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اَتَجۡعَلُ فِیۡهَا مَنۡ یُّفۡسِدُ فِیۡهَا وَ یَسۡفِکُ الدِّمَآءَ ۚ وَ نَحۡنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِکَ وَ نُقَدِّسُ لَکَ ؕ قَالَ اِنِّیۡۤ اَعۡلَمُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰

And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels, "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said, "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You?" He (Allah) said, "I know that which you do not know. [Surah al-Baqarah 2:30]

Allah, the Most High, said:

اِنَّا سَخَّرۡنَا الۡجِبَالَ مَعَهٗ یُسَبِّحۡنَ بِالۡعَشِیِّ وَ الۡاِشۡرَاقِ ﴿ۙ۱۸ وَ الطَّیۡرَ مَحۡشُوۡرَۃً ؕ کُلٌّ لَّهٗۤ اَوَّابٌ ﴿۱۹

Verily, We made the mountains glorify Our praises with him (Dawud) in the late afternoon and after sunrise. And (so did) the birds assembled-all with him (Dawud) did turn (to Allah, i.c., glorified His praises). [Surah Swad 38:18-19]

* The principle of love and desire: Shaykhul Islam ibn Taymiyyah

1. Reported by al-Bukhari (17392) and Mill (1/35).
2. Reported by al-Bukhari (1/9) and Muslim (1/66). 
3. Reported by al-Bukhari (1/8) and Muslin (1/67).
4. Reported by al-Bukhari (8/198). 
5. Reported by Ibn Majah (2/1249) and at-Tirmidhi (5/130).
6. Reported by al-Bukhari, Muslim, na-Nush'l, and Ibn Majah.
7. This is a part of the hadith reported by Abu Dawud (4/394): "Call yourselves by the names of the prophets. The names clearest to Allah are Abdullah and Abdur-Rahman, the truest are Harith and Hammam, und the worst are Harb and Murrah."
8. Reported by an-Nasa'i and up-labardul, und al-Albani declared it authentic.
9. Here, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyali is using the philosophers' own theories to prove that rububiyyah (lordship) and uftbiyyah (divinity) are both for Allah alone.

One of the theories borrowed by die Muslims from Greek philosophy is that there are four causes to explain the movement or change of anything. The two that he mentions here are the effective cause and the final cause. The effective cause is defined as the thing that causes the change or movement and the final cause is the objective of the change or movement. For example, the effective cause of a boat is the carpenter who built it; the final cause is the sailing of that boat, because that is what it was built for.

One of the things that made Ibn Taymiyyah so amazing is that he would refute people using their own doubts. He understood the philosophers' theories better than they did themselves and he used them to prove the fallacy of their beliefs.
10. In other words, something created can neither be the creator nor the objective of its own creation. The boat neither bullt Itsell' nor is it the final objective.
11. To summarize the Shaykh's argument: The effective cause of the creation is the Creator, Allah. It is not possible for anyone or anything from mankind. Juu, or oth erwise to be comidered the effective cause of creation, since they cannot even create another life without the help of a mate. They also cannot be deemed the final cause, be cause the ubjective of the creation is to warship the Creator and Sustainer of Life. This is what they were created for, and moreover, this is what they need. "Here the Shaykh will now mention the proofs from the Qur'an that Allah is not only the Lord, Creator, Sustalater, etc., but that He is also the only one worthy of worship.
15. Reported by al-Bukhari (9/125) and Muslim (1/138).

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