Many of the naturalist philosophers and others study the perceiv- able aspects of worldly life, the evident meanings of speech, the manifest workings of the physical world, and their apparent causes, wisdoms, and objectives, and they believe these things to be both the reason and the objective. And this is evident from their asper- sions regarding their study of the human anatomy, the hidden and apparent workings of the body, and their theories regarding the physical faculties by which the body works. 14
An example of this is what they say regarding human nature, such as its voracity, digestive faculty, nutritive faculty, reproductive faculty, defensive faculty, and so on. They found that the lungs cool the heart from its excessive heat, and that the brain is colder than the heart, and other explanations and reasonings that are witnessed in Allah's creation. These things serve as lessons and signs for those who will contemplate and seek to understand.
However, their mistake lies in attributing these great signs to the faculties of the body. They do not understand the ultimate wisdom of the creation, which is to worship the Lord.
There are other groups from among the people of rhetoric that disagree with them. They deny the nature of the creation and the faculties they possess. They reject what Allah shows them in the creation and even in themselves, that He creates things by way of other things, as is evident from His saying:
فَاَنۡزَلۡنَا بِهِ الۡمَآءَ فَاَخۡرَجۡنَا بِهٖ مِنۡ کُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ
We cause water (rain) to descend thereon, then We produce every kind of fruit therewith. And His saying: [Surah al-A'raf 7:57]
وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِنۡ رِّزۡقٍ فَاَحۡیَا بِهِ الۡاَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَا
And the provision (rain) that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death. [Surah al-Jathiyah 45:5]
Both groups do not understand that the wisdom behind all of creation is the worship of the Lord. This was the goal for which Allah sent the Messenger and revealed the Book. They only disagree about the one who does these things, and that which is related to Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, as we discussed previously. But as for witnessing the objective of these things, and that which is related to Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah, then they have not been guided to that path. Because of this, their methods contain misguidance and ignorance that contradicts the authentic texts and plain reasoning.
The people of knowledge correctly attribute all occurrences to Allah's creation, will, and lordship; this is in accordance with both reasoning and the religion. And those who include everything in that, including the actions of animals, are correct and in agreement with the Sunnah and logical reasoning. They are those who affirm that Allah is the Creator of all things, and their Lord and Owner.
The Qadariyyah oppose this belief-they exclude the actions of animals, and the naturalists and the philosophers exclude all of the actions of creation. Both of these views are false, as has been made clear.
Due to this, you find that when they speak about the movements that occur between the heavens and earth, such as the movement of the wind, the clouds, the rain, and the phenomena that cause the rain-like the air and the evaporation that rises from the earth sometimes (as more than one of the Salaf has discussed before)- and the way a fetus develops from sperm in its mother's womb, and the way a tree may be grown from a small seed; they see some of the visible causes but remain ignorant of most of them. Therefore, they reject that it is the Creator Who is the cause of all of that, and they reject how that is connected to His worship, exaltation, and prostration to Him, which is the objective of His wisdom.
Indeed, Allah created the clouds with water from the ocean and the evaporation from the earth, and He created animals, plants, and rocks.
Sperm is a tiny substance and is similar from one animal to another. Despite this, it is the basis of life of numerous and varied animals of differing appearances, size, abilities, rulings, etc. Would an intel- ligent person attribute creation to this small substance? This is the worst kind of perception and logic.
It is clear that just because something is created from something else, it does not mean that this thing is its creator; this applies to the pictures that Bani Adam create from ink, the sewing of clothes from yarn, the cooking of food from its ingredients, or the building of a house from its building materials. They were not responsible for the creation of these materials. Their objective was to perform specific movements and processes to aid the materials into a particular form. Now, if you related the writing to the ink or the building of a house to the materials, people would call you an imbecile. Hence, who is more foolish, ignorant, oppressive, and disbelieving than those who relate the creation of animals and plants to their original substances or natural states?
Likewise, relating the creation of clouds and rain to air and vapors; earthquakes to the congestion of gases; the tremble of thunder to the vibration of the cloud mass, and so on; these are all examples of reasons that contain clear misguidance, because some groups view them to be the complete effective cause and they do not under- stand the objective, so they are ignorant of both affairs. A number of groups debate about what causes and forces exist in nature. This is also ignorance.
14 Some of the philosophers were also physicians, such as Abu Bakr ar-Rāzi. Some of their philosophical views were connected to their knowledge of the human body.
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