Before concluding this discussion, we will list the beliefs which are proven as per ṣaḥeeḥ aḥaadeeth (hadiths):
a) The Prophethood of Adam (AS) (Peace be upon him) and other Prophets whose Prophethood is not confirmed in the Qur'an.
b) The superiority of our Prophet Muhammad(ﷺ) over all other Prophets and Messengers.
c) His major intercession in the arena of gathering (on the Day of Judgement).
d) His intercession for members of his ummah who commit major sins.
e) One of his (ﷺ) miracles apart from the Qur'an, is the splitting of the moon. Although this is mentioned in the Qur'an, they interpret it in a manner that contradicts the ṣaḥeeḥ aḥaadeeth which clearly state that the moon was split.
f) The aḥaadeeth which speak of the beginning of creation; the attributes of the angels and jinn; Paradise and Hell, and the fact that they are both created; and the fact that the Black Stone came from Paradise.
g) Many of the unique attributes of the Prophet (ﷺ), which As- Suyooţi compiled in his book Al-Khaṣaa'iş al-Kubra, such as the fact that he entered Paradise and saw its people and what has been prepared for the pious there, and the fact that his qareen (jinn companion) became Muslim.
h) Definitive statements that the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise (Al-'Asharah al-Mubashsharah) are indeed among the people of Paradise.
i) Belief in the questioning of Munkar and Nakeer in the grave. j) Belief in the torment of the grave.
k) Belief in the squeezing or compression of the grave.
1) Belief in the double-panned Balance (in which people's deeds will be weighed) on the Day of Resurrection.
m) Belief in Aş-Şiraat (a bridge that crosses Hell).
n) Belief in the Cistern of the Prophet (ﷺ), and that whoever drinks from it will never experience or suffer from thirst again.
o) That seventy thousand of his (ﷺ) ummah will enter Paradise without being brought to account.
p) Belief in everything that has been narrated in ṣaḥeeḥ aḥaadeeth about the resurrection and gathering (for Judgement) that has not been mentioned in the Qur'an.
q) Belief in the Divine Will and Predestination (Al-Qaḍaa' wa'l- Qadar), both good and bad, and that Allah (SWT), has written (decreed) for each person whether he is blessed (destined for Paradise) or doomed (destined for Hell), what his provision will be and how long he will live.
r) Belief in the Pen which has written all things.
s) Belief that those (Muslims) who commit major sins will not remain in Hell forever.
t) Belief that the souls of the shuhadaa' (martyrs for the cause of Allah) are in the forms of green birds in Paradise.
u) Belief that Allah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets.
v) Belief that Allah has angels who travel about, conveying the salaams (greetings of peace) of his ummah to the Prophet (ﷺ).
w) Belief in all the signs of the Hour such as the appearance of the Mahdi, the descent of 'Eesa (Jesus) (AS), the emergence of the Dajjaal (Pseudo-Christ), etc.
Not all the evidence for these beliefs is in aaḥaad aḥaadeeth; some of them are proven by mutawaatir aḥaadeeth. But these people who do not know the mutawaatir Sunnah and do not distinguish between mutawaatir and aaḥaad reports may reject all or most of these beliefs. Otherwise, the aḥaadeeth about the emergence of the Dajjaal, the appearance of the Mahdi and the descent of 'Eesa ibn Maryam (AS) are mutawaatir aḥaadeeth as the scholars of hadith have stated clearly.
What is even worse is that they deny the beliefs which are narrated in the mutawaatir aḥaadeeth, and even those that are narrated in the Qur'an, on the basis that the meaning of these texts is not definitive as mentioned above. We have already referred to the view of Shaykh Shaltoot. Hence they did not believe that people will see their Lord on the Day of Resurrection, even though the Qur'an states this quite clearly:
وجُوهٌ يَوْمَن نَاضِرَةُ إِلَى بَيْهَا نَاظِرَةٌSome faces that Day shall be Naaḍirah [shining and radiant]. Looking at their Lord [Allah].(Qur'an 75: 22-23)
And the aḥaadeeth which mention that also reach the degree of being mutawaatir.
Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari launched an attack against the Mu'tazilah because of their rejection of the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah, which was in imitation of their leaders. He (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "Those among the Mu'tazilah and Qadariyah who deviate from the truth have been led by their desires to imitate their leaders and predecessors. They interpret the Qur'an according to their leaders' opinions in a way for which they have no authority from Allah, they did not transmit any report from the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds, or from the earlier generations. They contradicted the reports of the ṣaḥaabah from the Prophet of Allah (ﷺ) concerning the people seeing Allah with their own eyes, although reports on this came from various sources and the reports reach the level of being mutawaatir, coming one after another. They denied that the Prophet (ﷺ) will intercede for sinners, and rejected the reports from the earlier generations concerning that. They denied the torment of the grave, and that the kuffaar- disbelievers - will be punished in their graves.'
Elsewhere, Abu'l-Hasan said: "The Mu'tazilah denied the Cistern, and the Mu'tazilah denied the torment of the grave."2
Abu'l-Hasan said in Maqaalaat al-Islamiyeen: "They differed concerning the torment of the grave. Some denied it and some affirmed it. These were the Mu'tazilah and Khawaarij."3
He also said in his Maqaalaat (articles):
"They differed concerning the intercession of the Messenger of Allah () and whether he would intercede for those who had committed major sins. The Mu'tazilah denied that and said that it would not happen."4
He also mentioned in several places in his Maqaalaat (articles) that the Mu'tazilah denied that Allah has an Eye and a Hand, and they denied that people will see Him with their own eyes and that He will come on the Day of Resurrection and that He comes down to the lowest heaven. They believed that the fussaaq (evildoers among the Muslims) will remain in Hell forever, and they held other beliefs which contradict the ṣaḥeeḥ mutawaatir aḥaadeeth and even the texts of the Qur'an.5
Whoever denies these beliefs which were reported in ṣaḥeeḥ aḥaadeeth is following the path of the Mu'tazilah, not the path of the Sunnis (Ahl as-Sunnah).
I have seen people of earlier and later generations stating that all the Signs of the Hour are narrated in aaḥaad aḥaadeeth, so they reject them on that basis, and those that they think are mutawaatir they misinterpret.
Ruling on Those who Deny that Which has been Proven in Aaḥaad Reports
Safaareeni narrated from Ishaaq ibn Raahawayh the view that those who reject the aaḥaad reports are kaafir (disbelievers). The correct view is that they are not kaafir. It seems that those who said that they are kaafir were thinking of the aḥaadeeth which are unanimously accepted by the ummah as being ṣaḥeeḥ (sound).
Although we do not say that they are kaafir, we do say that those who reject the ṣaḥeeḥ aḥaadeeth of the Messenger (ﷺ) and do not use them to prove matters of 'aqeedah (belief) are clearly mistaken, and there is the fear that they may become misguided because of their rejection of these aḥaadeeth, and Allah may punish them by sending them astray:
... فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ: أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمُ...And let those who oppose the Messenger's [Muhammad's] commandment [i.e. his Sunnah legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements] [among the sects] beware, lest some Fitnah [disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant] should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.) (Qur'an 24: 63)
The Correct Methodology
In this study we are adhering to what is stated in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Hence we must examine 'aqeedah according to the methodology used in the Qur'an and Sunnah, and not go beyond this methodology. This is the way which revived the hearts of the earliest generations of this ummah.
This is the only way in which the ummah in its modern stage can reform itself. Imam Maalik - the Imam and scholar of Madeenah - spoke the truth when he said: "The last (generations) of this ummah will not be reformed by anything other than that which reformed its first (generations)."
We have already seen how the Qur'anic methodology is distinct from philosophy in the way it discusses and confirms different issues of religion and belief. This distinction means that we must use the Qur'anic methodology and none other.
A matter which must be clarified: How can we use the Qur'an to address those who do not believe in it?
Some of those who have some commitment to Islam say: How can we present the Qur'an to those who do not believe in Allah? We have to address people nowadays with the logic of modern material, science and rational evidence, then if they are convinced of Islam, we will address them with the Qur'an.
We say to these people: We ask you by Allah, how did Allah command His Messenger to warn with the Qur'an the kuffaar who disbelieved in Allah, the Qur'an and the Messenger?
... وَأُوحِيَ إِلَى هَذَا الْقُرْمَانُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ، وَمَنْ بَلَغَ ......This Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach...) (Qur'an 6: 19)
How did He command him to recite this Qur'an to them? Did he not recite it to these stubborn disbelievers, and it moved them and stirred their hearts?
What effect did the verses of the Qur'an have on Umayyah ibn Khalaf and Al-Waleed ibn 'Utbah, and others, despite their extreme kufr (disbelief) and stubborn enmity?
It could be said that nowadays the Qur'an is recited in all places and is even broadcast from London and Washington, yet the followers of Islam who recite the Qur'an do not believe in what it says.
The response to these people is that the Arabs of the past would listen to what was recited to them and it would penetrate to the depths of their being, because they were Arabs who understood the meanings of the aayaat (verses), and there was no barrier between them and the words.
But nowadays there are barriers between the people and the Qur'an, some of which have to do with language, and others have to do with the doubts that fill people's minds and have virtually become unquestionable facts.
So the bearers of the Qur'an nowadays have to explain the Qur'an in a language that the people can understand. They have to put the people in touch with the Qur'an, and the Qur'an in touch with the people, by explaining its meanings to them, and renewing the meanings of this Book in their hearts, so that once again they will appreciate it and feel it... and its meanings will reach those who disbelieve it and deny it in this way. Thus the call will be given and it will leave no person with any excuse.
We have already explained that the Qur'an contains evidence which addresses the mind and the heart; it is not merely telling stories or giving information.
A Dubious Call: Bringing Religions Together
This is the right way: explaining the methodology which Allah has showed us in order to establish faith in people's hearts and to adhere to it ourselves when calling, leading and teaching people.
The enemies of Allah and those among this ummah who have been deceived are trying to distort this methodology, by calling for all religions to come together. They have held conferences and seminars for this purpose.
Those Muslims who attended these conferences have made a big mistake, because they agreed to make Islam subject to examination at the same level as Judaism and Christianity.
We say that these people had an excuse if they went there in order to say to others what the Qur'an says:
وقُل يَنأَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ
Say [O' Muhammad]: 'O' people of the Scripture [Jews and Christians]: Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah [Alone], and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah.' Then, if they turn away, say: 'Bear witness that we are Muslims.' (Qur'an 3: 64)
They should explain the falsehood of these (other religions) in a way that is better, and show them the true religion, and establish proof against them, rather than pursuing friendship and turning a blind eye to their falsehood for the sake of being friendly.
Those who mix Islam with other religions, ways of thinking and philosophies make a mistake when they claim that they are trying to reconcile the texts of the Qur'an to the beliefs of those other people in order to meet others halfway. Their claim is a lie and they have gone astray in their methodology. Islam is the religion of Allah which controls life and living beings. It does not need to be reconciled with anything else. Other beliefs contain truth and falsehood, but Islam is entirely true, and our mission is to keep the Book of our Lord and His religion distinct.
... قد تبَيِّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ......Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path...(Qur'an 2: 256)
- so that people may resort to it and find it pure and not mixed with anything else.
Allah(SWT), has condemned this type of people who want to mix Islam with other religions and meet others halfway on the basis of reconciliation. He tells us that this is the action of the munaafiqeen (hypocrites):
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَبَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَنا وَتَوْفِيقًاAnd when it is said to them: 'Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger [Muhammad],' you [Muhammad] see the hypocrites turn away from you [Muhammad] with aversion. How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth, they come to you swearing by Allah, 'We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!") (Qur'an 4: 61-62)
1. Al-Ibaanah 'an Uşool ad-Diyaanah, Pp. 6.
2. Ibid., pp. 75.
3. Maqaalaat al-Islamiyeen, Pp. 340.
4. Ibid, pp. 340.
5. "Maqaalaat al-Islamiyeen, Pp. 157, 216, 195, 474.
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